Physiological and Agronomical Responses of Triticale to the Growth Bacteria, Nano Iron Fertilizer and Ordinary Iron Fertilizer Treatment


1 Department of Agriculture, Firoozabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Firoozabad, Iran.

2 Department of Agriculture, Shiraz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shiraz, Iran.


BACKGROUND: Bio-fertilizers are best eco-friendly approach for plant and soil environment. Also, micronutrient element such as iron plays a key role in the formation of chlorophyll and photosynthesis.
OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the effect of growth bacteria and Nano iron fertilizer and ordinary iron fertilizer on some physiological properties of Triticale.
METHODS: The experiment was conducted as 4×6 factorial in RCBD design with three replications at two years (2016-2017). Treatments included: Use of plant growth-promoting bacteria in four levels (Non-inoculation, inoculation with Azotobacter crocococcus, Azospirillium methylpofrome and Pseudomonas putida) and nano iron fertilizer in five levels (0, 0.5%, 1%, 1.5% and 2%) and ordinary iron fertilizer on two levels (2% and 0%). According to results it was founded that application of Azotobacter crocococcus, Pseudomonas putida and Azospirillium methylpofrome led to15, 13 and 17% the increase of seed yield by the compare to control. In relation to Nano-Fe fertilizer, it was observed that 1% Nano-Fe fertilizer showed highest seed yield.
RESULT: The results of means comparisons for bacterial treatment showed that the highest leaf area index was related to Azotobacter treatment and the lowest amount was related to control treatment. Regarding the crop growth rate index, the results of the data analysis indicated that bacterial treatment and treatment of iron were significant at 1% level, but the interaction treatment was not significant.
CONCLUSION: Between three tested bacteria, the Azotobacter highest effects on LAI, CGR and HI, so, we propose application of nano-Fe fertilizer and plant growth-promoting bacteria together for the improving Triticale yield in Iran and similar regions. 


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