Evaluation Effect of Livestock Manure and Urea Fertilizer on Quantitative and Qualitative Characteristics of Corn and Correlation Between Traits (S.C 704)

Authors

1 MSc Graduated, Department of Soil Science, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, Iran.

2 Associate Professor, Department of Soil Science, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, Iran.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Overuse of fertilizers can lead to groundwater contamination, depletion of soil microorganisms and beneficial insects, increased crop susceptibility to diseases, acidification or alkalization of soil, damage to soil structure, reduced organic matter and soil fertility. Therefore, for achieve sustainable agricultural, it is necessary to reduce the consumption of conventional fertilizers.
OBJECTIVES: Current study was conducted to assess effect of different level of nitrogen fertilizer and livestock manure on crop production and protein percentage of maize.
METHODS: This research was arranged via factorial experiment based on randomized complete blocks design with three replications. The treatments included nitrogen fertilizer (F1= none use of fertilizer or control, F2= 50% less than soil test or 90 kg.ha-1, F3=equal soil test or 180 kg.ha-1, F4=50% more than soil test or 270 kg.ha-1) and livestock manure (M1=none use of manure or control, M2= 20 t.ha-1).
RESULT: According result of analysis of variance interaction effect of treatments on all measured traits was significant. Assessment interaction effect of treatments indicated maximum number of seed per row (42), number of row per ear (16), 1000-seed weight (280 gr), seed yield (9900 kg.ha-1) and protein concentration (10.5%) was noted for 180 kg.ha-1 nitrogen (equal soil test) with 20 t.ha-1 livestock manure and minimum of those belonged to control treatment. Comparison of different levels of nitrogen treatments showed that application of fertilizer equal soil test (180 kg.ha-1) caused 22.5% increase in number of seed per ear, 13.69% number of row per ear, 25% 1000 seed weight, 20.2% seed yield and 20.29% protein percentage were compared to control.
CONCLUSION: Finally based on result of this research use 180 kg.ha-1 nitrogen fertilizer (equal soil test) and 20 t.ha-1 livestock manure improve quantitative and qualitative traits of corn and can be advised to farmers.

Highlights

 

Keywords


Abakemal, D., H. Shimeli. and J. Derera. 2016. Genotype by environment interaction and yield stability of quality protein maize hybrids developed from tropical-highland adapted inbred lines. Euphytica. 209(3): 757-769.

Abbas, G., J. Z. K. Khattak, A. Mir, M. Ishaque, M. Hussain, H. M. Wahedi, M. S. Ahmed. and A. Ullah. 2012. Effect of organic manures with recommended of NPK on the performance of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). J. Animal Plant Sci. 22(3): 683-687.

Alizadeh Dehkordi, P. 2010. Effect of livestock and urea fertilizers on net soil mineralization, growth and yield of corn (Zea mays L.) under cut irrigation at flowering. M.Sc. Thesis. Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources. Shahrekord University. 101 pages. (Abstract in English)

Benton Jones, J. and V. W. Case. 1990. Sampling, handling and analyzing plant tissue samples. pp: 389-428. In: Westerman, R. L. (Ed.), Soil testing and plant analysis, 3rd Ed. Book series No. 3. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Inc. Madison. WI.

Birendra, N. G., O. P. S. Khola, R. Bhattacharyya, K. S. Dadhwal. and P. K. Mishra. 2016. Effect of potassium on soil conservation and productivity of maize/cowpea based crop rotations in the north-west Indian Himalayas. J. Mountain Sci. 13(4): 754-762. (Abstract in English)

Bohme, L. and F. Bohme. 2006. Soil microbiological and biochemical properties affected by plant growth and different long-term fertilization. Europe. J. Soil Biol. 42: 1-12.

Bremner, J. M. and G. A. Breitenbeck. 1983. A simple method for determination of ammonium in semi micro Kjeldahl analysis of soils and plant materials using a block digester. Soil Sci. Plant Anal. 14: 905-913.

Caliskan, S., I. Ozkaya, M. E. Caliskan. and A. Arslan. 2008. The effects of nitrogen and iron fertilization on growth, yield and fertilizer use efficiency of soybean in a Mediterranean type soil. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. 36: 24-43.

Cheraghi, Y., F. A. Mohyedi. and M. Kalhor. 2016. Effects of organic and chemical fertilizers on yield components of common wheat. Inst Integrative Omics App. Bio-Tech. J. 7(8): 82-86.

Emmaline, A. L. and M. K. Quirine. 2016. Factors of yield resilience under changing weather evidenced by a 14-year record of corn-hay yield in a 1000-cow dairy farm. J. Agron. Sustain. Develop. 36: 16-26.

Fallah, S., A. Ghalavand. and M. R. Khajehpour. 2007. Effects of Animal Manure Incorporation Methods and its Integration with Chemical Fertilizer on Yield and Yield Components of Maize (Zea mays L.) in Khorramabad, Lorestan. J. Water Soil Sci. 11(40): 233-243. (Abstract in English)

Ghanbari, A., Y. Ismaili. and M. Babaeans. 2013. Effect of animal and chemical fertilizers on forage yield, grain and some nutrient concentrations in elemental barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grain. Iranian J. Plant Eco-physiology. 8(3): 23-36. (Abstract in English)

Hanway, D. G. 1979. Corn planting data, population of Nebraska, Lincoln, bull. No 79.

Hassanpour, R., H. Pyrdshty, M. Ismaili. and A. Abbasids. 2011. Effects of nitrogen biological fertilizer on yield and yield components of sesame varieties. Proc. 11th Cong. Agron. Plant Breed. 4th August. Beheshti Univ. Tehran. Iran. pp: 4217-4220. (Abstract in English).

Hossian, S. M. A., A. M. A. Kamal, M. R. Islam. and M. A. Mannan. 2002. Effect of different levels of chemical and organic fertilizers on growth, yield and protein content of wheat. J. Biol. Sci. 2(5): 304-306.

Jorfi, A., M. Alavi-Fazel. and A. Modhej. 2015. Enhancement of growth, inoculation and yield production of Corn (Zea mays L.) hybrids by using bio-fertilizer. J. Crop. Nutr. Sci. 1(3,4): 54-67.

Lak, S., A. Naderi, S. A. Saidat, A. Ayenehband, Gh. Nour Mohammadi. and S. H. Moosavi. 2008. The effects of different levels of irrigation, nitrogen and plant population on yield, yield components and dry matter remobilization of Corn at climatically conditions of Khuzestan. J. Water Soil Sci. 11(42):1-14. (Abstract in English)

Modhej, A., A. Naderi, Y. Emam, Gh. Normohamadi. and A. Ayenehband. 2008. Effects of post anthesis eat stress and nitrogen levels on grain yield in wheat genotypes. International J. Plant Production. 2(3): 257-267.

National Soil Survey Center (NSSC). 1996. Soil Survey Laboratory Methods Manual. Soil Survey Investigation Report. No. 42. Lincoln. Nebraska. USA.

Nelson, D. W. and L. E. Summers. 1982. Total carbon, organic carbon and organic matter. In: Page, A.L., et al., (Eds.), Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 2, (2nd Ed.). ASA Publ. Vol. 9. Am. Soc. Agron. Madison. WI. pp: 539-577.

Olsen, S. R. and L. E. Summers. 1982. Phosphorus. In: Methods of Soil Analysis (2nd Ed.). Part 2 . Am. Soc. Agron. Madison WI. pp: 403-424.

Page, A. L., R. H. Miller. and D. R. Jeeney. 1992a. Methods of soil analysis, Part 1. Physical properties. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Pub. Madison. 1750 p.

Page, A.L., R. H. Miller. and D. R. Jeeney. 1992b. Methods of soil analysis, Part 2. Chemical and mineralogical properties. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Pub. Madison. WI. 1159 p.

Pouryousef Miandoab, M. and N. Shahravan. 2014. Effect of foliar application of Amino Acids at different times on yield and yield components of maize. J. Crop Physiol. 6(23): 21-32. (Abstract in English)

Sahoo, R. K., D. Bhardwaj. and N. Tuteja. 2013. Bio-fertilizers: A Sustainable eco-friendly agricultural approach to crop improvement. In: Plant Acclimation to Environmental Stress. pp: 403-432.

Sharma, A. K. 2003. Bio-fertilizers for sustainable agriculture. Arobios. India. 77 pp.

Shamme, S. K, C. V. Raghavaiah, T. Balemi. and I. Hamza. 2016. Sorghum growth, productivity, nitrogen removal, N-use efficiencies and economics in relation to genotypes and nitrogen nutrition in Kellem-Wollega zone of Ethiopia, East Africa. Adv. Crop Sci. Tech 4: 218-226.

United State Department of Agriculture (USDA) 1996. Soil survey laboratory methods manual. Soil Survey Investigations Report No. 42, Version 3.0, January, United States Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service, National Soil Survey Center. Lincoln. Nebraska. USA.

Venkatash-Warlu, B. 2008. Role of bio-fertilizers in organic farming: Organic farming in rain fed agriculture: Central institute for dry land agriculture. Hyderabad. Pak. pp: 85-95.

Yousefpoor, Z. and A. Yadvy. 2014. The effects of nitrogen and phosphorous biological and chemical fertilizers on qualitative and quantitative yield of sunflower. J. Agri. Sust. Prod. 24(1): 120-130. (Abstract in English)