Evaluation Seed Yield, Its Components and Protein Concentration of Wheat in Response to Different level of Nitrogen and Vermicompost


Msc Graduated, Department of Agronomy, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, Iran.


BACKGROUND: Management of nutrients, especially nitrogen, in order to have economic production, maintain sustainable agriculture and provide food security, is considered to have an important priority.
OBJECTIVES: Current study was conducted to evaluate effect of different level of nitrogen fertilizer and vermicompost on quantitative and qualitative traits of wheat.
METHODS: This research was carried out via factorial experiment based on randomized complete blocks design with three replications along 2013-2014 agronomic years. The Main plot included nitrogen fertilizer at four levels (nonuse of fertilizer or control, 50, 100 and 150 kg.ha-1) and vermicompost at four level (nonuse of vermicompost or control, 2.5, 5 and 10 t.ha-1) belonged to sub plot.
RESULT: According result of analysis of variance effect of different level of nitrogen, vermicompost and interaction effect of treatments on all measured traits was significant. Assessment result of mean comparison of different level of nitrogen revealed maximum amount of seed yield (5800 kg.ha-1), biologic yield (17210 kg.ha-1), harvest index (35.8%), straw yield (11410 kg.ha-1), number of spike per m2 (534), number of seed per spike (31), 1000-seed weight (36 gr), number of seed per m2 (15900), number of seed per spikelet (2.4), spike length (17 cm), plant height (91.5 cm), protein (18.4%) was obtained for 150 kg.ha-1 nitrogen and minimum amount of mentioned traits were for control treatment. Also mean comparison result of different level of vermicompost indicated the maximum amounts of all measured traits were noted for 10 kg.ha-1 and minimum of those belonged to control treatment. Assessment mean comparison result of interaction effect of treatments indicated the maximum amount of all measured traits belonged to 150 kg.ha-1 nitrogen and 10 t.ha-1 vermicompost and the lowest amounts were for control treatment.
CONCLUSION: According result of current research consume 150 kg.ha-1 nitrogen fertilizer and 10 t.ha-1 vermicompost led to achieve highest amount of seed yield, its components, plant height, spike length and protein concentration and it can be advised to farmers in studied region.


Abbasi, T., S. Gajalakshmi. and S. A. Abbasi. 2009. Towards modeling and design of vermin composting systems: Mechanisms of composting vermin composting and their implications. Intl. J. Biotech. 8: 177-182.

Agrawal, S. B., A. Singh, G. D. Singh. and A. Dwivedi. 2003. Effect of vermicompost, farmyard manure and chemical fertilizers on growth and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. var. HD 2643). Plant Archives. 3: 9-14.

Amyanpoori, S., M. Ovassi. and E. Fathinejad. 2015. Effect of vermicompost and triple superphosphate on yield of corn (Zea mays L.). J. Exp. Biol. Agri. Sci. 3(5): 494-499.

Andhikari, N. P. and B. N. Mishra. 2002. Effect of integrated sources of nitrogen on yield of aromatic rice and their residual effect on succeeding. Extended Summaries: 2nd Intl. Agron. Cong. New Delhi. India. November 26–30, 1: 63–64.

Ansari, A. A. and K. Sukhraj. 2010. Effect of vermiwash and vermicompost on soil parameters and productivity of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) in Guyana. P. J. Agri. Res. 23: 137-142.

Anwar, M., D. Patra, S. Chand, K. Alpesh, A. Naqvi. and S. Khanuja. 2005. Effect of organic manures and inorganic fertilizer on growth, herb and oil yield, nutrient accumulation, and oil quality of French basil. Comm. Soil Sci. Plant Anal. 36: 1737-1746.

Atiyeh, R. M., S. Subler, C. A. Edwards, G. Bachman, J. D Metzger. and W. Shuster. 2000a. Effects of vermicompost and composts on plant growth horticultural container media and soil. J. Pedobiology. 44(5): 579-590.

Atiyeh, R. M., N. Q. Arancon, C. A. Edwards. and J. D. Metzger. 2000b. Influence of earthworm-processed pig manure on the growth and yield of greenhouse tomatoes. Biores. Tech. J. 75: 175-180.

Awan, T. H., R. I. Ali, Z. Manzoor, M. Ahmad. and M. Akhtar. 2011. Effect of different nitrogen levels and row spacing on the performance of newly evolved medium grain rice variety, KSK-133. J. Animal Plant Sci. 21(2): 231-34.

Azcon, R. and F. El-Atrash. 1997. Influence of Arbuscular mycorrhizae and phosphorus fertilization on growth, nodulation and N2 fixation (N15) in Medicago sativa at four salinity levels. Biol. Fertil. Soils. 24: 81-86.

Behera, U. K., A. R. Sharma. and H. N. Pandey. 2007. Sustaining productivity of wheat–soybean cropping system through integrated nutrient management practices on the Vertisols of central India Plant Soil. 97: 185–199.

Bevacqual, R. F. and V. J. Mellama. 1993. Sewage sludge compost's cumulative effects on crop growth and soil properties. Compost Sci. Utilization. pp. 34-37.

Bremner, J. M. and G. A. Breitenbeck. 1983. A simple method for determination of ammonium in semi micro Kjeldahl analysis of soils and plant materials using a block digester. Soil Sci. Plant Anal. 14: 905-913.

Chang, E. H., R. Sh. Chung. and F. N. Wang. 2008. Effect of different types of organic fertilizers on the chemical properties and enzymatic activities of an Oxisol under intensive cultivation of vegetables for 4 years. Soil Sci. Plant Nutr. 54(4): 587-599.

David, C. 1997. Nitrogen management organic farming: nutrient requirement and fertilization, Gent, September 7-13, 1997. Gent Univ. Intl. Sci. Fertil. pp: 647-660.

Distelfeld, A., R. Avni. and A. Fischer. 2014. Senescence, nutrient remobilization and yield in wheat and barley. J. Exp. Bot. 65(14): 3783–3798.

Edwards, C. A. and N. Arancon. 2004. Vermicompost suppress plant pest and disease attacks. Retrieved from:http://www.rednova.com/display/?id=55938.

Ehdaie, B. and D. G. Waines. 2001. Sowing date and nitrogen rate effects on dry matter and nitrogen partitioning in bread and durum wheat. Field Crops Res. J. 73(1): 7-61.

Fang, Y., X. Bing-Cheng, T. Neil. and L. Feng-Min. 2010. Grain yield, dry matter accumulation and remobilization and root respiration in winter wheat as affected by seeding rate and root pruning. Eur. J. Agron. 33: 257-266.

Farooqui, M. A., I. S. Naruka, S. S. Rathore, P. P. Singh. and R. P. S. Shaktawat. 2009. Effect of nitrogen and sulphur levels on growth and yield of garlic (Allium sativum L.). As. J. Food Ag. Ind. Special Issue. pp: 18-23.

Fowler, B. D. and J. Brydon. 2001. No-till winter wheat production on the Canadian prairies. Agron. J. 81: 817-825.

Fowler, D. B. 2003. Crop nitrogen demand and grain protein concentration of spring and winter wheat. Agron. J. 95: 260-265.

Gardner, F. P., R. B. Pearce. and R. L. Mitchell. 1985. Physiology of crop plants. Ames, IA: Iowa State Univ. Press. USA. 121 pp.

Gardner, F. P., B. Pearce. and R. L. Mitchell. 2003. Physiology of crop plants. Jodhpur Scientific Pub. 328 p.

Gopal, M., A. Gupta, C. Palaniswami, R. Dhanapal. andG. V. Thomas. 2010. Coconut leaf vermiwash: a bio-liquid from coconut leaf vermicompost for improving the crop production capacities. Current Sci. J. 98: 1202-1210.

Haj Seyed Hadi, M.,M. T. Darzi. and Z. Ghandahari Al-Wajah. 2010. Effect of spraying with amino acids and application of different amounts of vermicompost on morphological and chamomile flowers. New Find. Agri. J. 5(2): 158-147. (Abstract in English)

Hernandez, O. L., A. Calderín, R. Huelva, D. Martínez-Balmori. and F. Guridi. 2015. Humic substances from vermicompost enhance urban lettuce production. Agron. Sust. Develop. Springer Verlag/EDP Sciences/INRA. 35(1): 225-232.

Jabeen, N. and R. Ahmad. 2017. Growth response and nitrogen metabolism of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) to vermicompost and biogas slurry under salinity stress. J. Plant. Nutri. 40(1): 104-114.‏

Jadia, D. C. and M. H. Fulekar. 2008. Vermicomposting of vegetable waste: A biophysico-chemical process based on hydro-operating bioreactor. Afri. J. Bio-Tech. 7: 3723-3730.

Joshi, R., S. Jaswinder. and A. Pal Vig. 2014. Vermicompost as an effective organic fertilizer and bio control agent: effect on growth, yield and quality of plants. Rev. Environ. Sci. Biotechnol. pp. 1-23.

Khalilzadeh, Gh., A. R. Eivazi, J. Mozaffari. and Y. Arshad .2013. Genetic variation for the efficiency of nitrogen uptake and use in Bread wheat cultivars of Iran and Azerbaijan. Int. J. Farming and Allied Sci. 2(21): 900-908.

Kizilkaya, R. 2008. Yield response and nitrogen concentration of spring wheat inoculated with Azotobacter chroococcum strains. Eco. Eng. J. 33: 150-156.

Krishnan, P., S. Nagarajan, M. Dadlani. and A. V. Moharir. 2003. Characterization of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and soybean (Glycine max L.) seeds under accelerated aging conditions by proton nuclear magnetic spectroscopy. Seed Sci. Technol. 31: 541-550.

Kumar, A., B. Singh. and J. Sing. 2001. Response of macanip heat (T. durum) nitrogen. Phosphorus and sodic water on loamy-sand of southwest hiragana. Indian J. 46(1): 118-121.

Lemon, J. 2007. Nitrogen management for wheat protein and yield in the esperance port zone. Department of Agriculture and Food Publisher. Western Australia. p. 25.

Mainard, S. D. and M. H. Jeuffrory. 2001. Partitioning of dry matter and nitrogen to the spike throughout the spike growth period in wheat crops subjected to nitrogen deficiency. Field Crop Res. J. 70: 153-165.

Modhej, A. and M. Mojadam. 2006. Effect of harvesting levels and nitrogen fertilization on source limitation and yield in dual-purpose (Forage and seed) Barley (Hordeum vulgar L.). J. Agric. Sci. 13: 143-151.

Manyuchi. M. M., T. Chitambwe, A. Phiri P. Muredzi. and Q. Kanhukamwe. 2013a. Effect of vermicompost, vermiwash and application time on soil physicochemical properties. Intl. J. Environ. Eng. 4: 216-220.

Manyuchi, M. M.,L. Kadzungura, A. Phiri. and P. Muredzi. 2013b. Effect of Vermicompost, vermiwash and application time on Zea mays growth. Intl. J. Sci. Eng. Tech. 2: 638-641.

Manyuchi. M. M., T. Chitambwe, P. Muredzi. and Q. Kanhukamwe. 2013c. Continuous flow-through vermin reactor for medium scale vermin composting. Asian J. Eng. Tech. 1:5-9.

Manyuchi, M. M., A. Phiri, P. Muredzi. and T. Chitambwe. 2013d. Comparison of vermicompost and vermiwash Bio-fertilizers from vermin composting waste corn pulp. World Academy Sci. Eng. Tech. J. 7: 360-371.

Modhej, A., A. Naderi, Y. Emam, A. Ayneband. and Gh. Normohammadi. 2009. Effect of different nitrogen levels on grain yield, grain protein content and agronomic nitrogen use efficiency in wheat genotypes under optimum and post-anthesis heat stress conditions. Seed Plant Prod. 25(4): 353-371. (Abstract in English)

Moghaddam, M., B. Ehdaie. and E. Waines. 1997. Genetic variation and inter relationships of agronomic characters in landraces of bread wheat from South-Eastern Iran. Euphytica. J. 95: 361-369.

Mosanaei, H., H. Ajamnorozi, M. R. Dadashi, A. Faraji. and M. Pessarakli. 2017. Improvement effect of nitrogen fertilizer and plant density on wheat seed deterioration and yield. Emir. J. Food Agric. 29(11): 899-910. In: Nourmohammadi, Gh., A. Siadat. and A. Kashani. 2010. Cereal Crops. 9th Printing. Chamran Univ. Press. p. 48.

Muhammad, A., A. J. Griffiths. K. P. Williams. and D. L. Jones. 2007. Evaluating the growth characteristics of lettuce in vermicompost and green waste compost. Europe. J. Soil Biol. 43(1): 316-319.

Nadi, M. and A. Golchin. 2011. The effects of different vermicompost on the growth and chemical composition of the pistachio seedlings. J. Res. Agri. Sci. 7(1): 59-69.

Nagavallemma, K. P., S. P. Wani, S. Lacroix, V. V. Padmaja, C. Vineela, M. Babu Rao. and K. L. Sahrawat. 2004. Vermicomposting: Recycling wastes into valuable organic fertilizer. Global Theme on Agro-ecosystems. Report No. 8. Patancheru 502-324. Andhra Pradesh. India: Intl. Crops Res. Inst. Semi-Arid Tropics. 20 pp.

Naseri, R., A. Mirzaei, R. Soleimani. and E. Nazarbeygi. 2010. Response of bread wheat to nitrogen application in calcareous soils of western Iran. American-Eurasian J. Agric. Environ. Sci. 9(1): 79-85.

Nath. G. and K. Singh. 2012. Effect of vermiwash of different vermin composts on the kharif crops. J. Central Europe. Agri. 13: 379-402.

Peltonen, P. and J. Peltonen. 1995. Floret set and abortion in eat and wheat under high and low nitrogen. Eur. J. Agron. 4: 253-262.

Rahman, M. S., M. R. Islam, M. M. Rahman. and M. I. Hossain. 2009. Effect of cowdung, poultry manure and urea N on the yield and nutrient uptake of BRRI dhan29. Bangladesh Res. Pub. J. 2(2): 552-558.

Sadeghi, H. and A. R. Kazemeini. 2011. Effect of crop residue management and nitrogen fertilizer on grain yield and yield components of two barley cultivars under dry land conditions. Iran. J. Crop Sci. 13(3): 436-451.

Singh, S. 2000. Effect of Fe, Zn on growth of canola. Environ. Sci. 34(1-2): 57-63.

Shanggan, Z. P., A. Shao. and J. Dychmans. 2000. Nitrogen nutrition and water stress effects on leaf photosynthetic gas exchange and water use efficiency in winter wheat. Environ. Exp. Bot. 44: 141-149.

Song, Y. and Z. Yao. 2001. Effect of application of fertilizer NPK combined with organic manure on growth characteristics and yield of winter wheat. Beijing Agri. Sci. 19(5): 15-17.

Srivastava, R. D. L. and O. N. Mehrotra. 1981. Physiological studies on nutrition of dwarf wheat. IV. Effect of rate and method of nitrogen application on yield and yield components of wheat. Indian J. Agric. Chem. 14(1-2): 139-147.

Stancheva, I. and I. Mitova. 2002. Effects of different sources and fertilizer rates on the lettuce yield and quality under controlled conditions. Bulg. J. Agri. Sci. 8: 157-160.

Veisi Nasab, M., H. R. Mobasser. and H. R. Ganjali. 2015. Effect of different levels of vermicompost on yield and quality of Maize varieties. Intl. J. Biol. Forum. 7(1): 856-860.

Wysocki, D. J., M. Corp, D. A. Horneck. and L. K. Lutcher. 2007. Nutrient Management Guide: Irrigated and Dry land Canola. Oregon State Univ. EM-8943-E. Available from:

http: //www. Extsion. oregonstate. edu/ catalog/ pdf/ em/ em8943- e.pdf.

Zorb, C., C. Grover, D. Steinfurth. and K. H. Muhling. 2010. Quantitative proteome analysis of wheat gluten as influenced by N and S nutrition. Plant Soil. 327(1-2): 225-234.