Evaluation of Microbial Biomass and Soil Carbon as Well as Weed Parameters on Potato Production Affected Different Weed Management


1 Ph.D of Weed Science, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran.

2 Associate Professor, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran.

3 Assistant Professor, Department of Soil Science and Engineering University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran.


BACKGROUND: Application of plant mulches plays a significant role in development and expansion of sustainable farming systems.
OBJECTIVES: Assessment effect of chemical and non-chemical weeds management methods on weeds density and biomass and the properties of soil, including microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and soil organic carbon (SOC) in potato cultivation.
METHODS: Research was conducted in 2015 in two agricultural research stations of Alarogh and Samian in Ardabil city according randomized complete block design with three replications. The treatments included: 1) Trifluralin herbicide (TR), 2) Metribuzin herbicide (ME), 3) cultivator practice (CU), 4) wheat straw mulch (WH), 5) canola straw mulch (CA), 6) black plastic mulch (BPL), 7) transparent plastic mulch (TPL), 8) weed infested (WI), and 9) weed free (WF). Soil sampling was conducted at three stages. The first stage included control index sampling (CIS). The second and third soil sampling performed at 25 and 45 day after the treatment application.
RESULT: All treatments were affected by weed management methods (P≤ 0.01). The lowest density of weeds was related to the WH. Most weeds density was counted as 99.1 plants.m-2 of WI treatment. The WH deceased weeds density as 84% compared to weed infested. CA treatment deceased weeds density as 79% compared to WI treatment. Though, weed biomass in the treatments of transparent and BPL compared to the WI treatment had the highest weeds biomass as 48 and 40%, respectively. The lowest weed biomass was observed in CA and WH by 16 and 18% after the WI.
CONCLUSION: The highest rate of MBC observed in WH and CA treatments at the second and the third soil sampling stages, respectively, compared with other experimental treatments. WH and CA increased the rate of MBC in the second and the third sampling stages in comparison with CIS. The highest SOC was observed in WH and CA at the second and the third soil sampling stages.


Alvear, M., A. Rosas, J. L. Rouanet. and F. Borie. 2005. Effects of three soil tillage systems on some biological activities in an Ultisol from southern Chile. Soil Till. Res. 82: 195–202.

Azadbakht, A., M. T. Alebrahim, H. R. Mohammadduost Chamanabad, A. Ghavidel. and H. Karbalaei Khiavi. 2017. The effect of chemical and non-chemical weed management methods on chemical and biological properties of soil in potato cultivation in Ardabil province, Iran. Appl. Ecol. Environ. Res. 15(3): 771-783.

Balota, E. L., M. Kanashiro, A. C. Filho, D. S. Andrade, R. P. Dick. 2004. Soil enzyme activities under long term tillage and crop rotation systems in subtropical agro-ecosystems. Brazilian J. Microbiol. 35: 300-306.

Boerner, R. E. J., K. L. M Decker. and E. K. Sutherland. 2000. Prescribed burning effects on soil enzyme activity in a southern Ohio hardwood forest: A landscape-scale analysis. Soil Biol. Biochem. 32: 899-908.

Borzouei, M., E. Izadi, M. H. Rashed Mohassel, M. Hassanzadeh. and M. Rastgoo. 2013. Effect of Trifluralin herbicide residues in soil on the growth of some plants. 4th Iranian Weed Conf. 6-8 Feb. (Abstract in English)

Buhler, D. D., M. Liebman. and J. J. Obrycki. 2000. Theoretical and practical challenges to an IPM to weed management. Weed Sci. 48: 274-280.

Certini, G. 2005. Effects of fire on properties of forest soils: A review. Oecol. 143: 1–10.

Channappaguar, B. B., N. R. Biradar, T. D. Bharmagoudar. and R. V. Koti. 2007. Crop weed competition and chemical control of weeds in potato. Karnataka J. Agri. Sci. 20: 715-718.

Dhima, K. V., I. B. Vasilakoglou, I. G. Elefthe rohorinos. and A. S. lithourgidis. 2006. Allelopathic potential of winter cereal cover crop mulches on grass weed suppression and sugar beet. Crop Sci. 46: 345-352.

Didon, U. M. E., A. K. Kolseth, D. Widmark. and P. Persson. 2014. Cover crop residues effects on germination and early growth of annual weeds. Weed Sci. 62(2): 294-302.

Diekow, J., J. Mielniczuk, H. Knicker, C. Bayer, D. P. Dick. and I. Kogel-Knabner. 2005. Carbon and nitrogen stocks in physical fractions of a subtropical Acrisol as influenced by long term notill cropping systems and nitrogen. Plant Soil. 268: 319–328.

Duppong, L. M., K. Delate, M. Liebmen, R. Horton, G. Kraus, J. Petrich. and P. K. Chowdbury. 2004. The effect of natural mulches on crop performance, weed suppression and biochemical constituents of catnip and St. Johns Wort. Crop Sci. 44: 861-869.

Fontaine, S., S. Barot, P. Barre, N. Bdioui, B. Mary. and C. Rumpel. 2007. Stability of organic carbon in soil layers controlled by fresh carbon supply. Natural. J. 450: 277–280.

Helgason, B., F. Walley. and J. Germida. 2010. No till soil management increases microbial biomass and alters community profiles in soil. Appl. Soil Ecol. 46: 390–397.

Hernandez, T., C. Garcia. I. Reinhardt. 1997. Short-term effect of wildfire on the chemical, biochemical and microbiological properties of Mediterranean pine forest soils. Biol. Fertil. Soils. 25: 109–116.

Hutchinson, P., B. Beutler. and J. Farr. 2011. Hairy nightshade (Solanum sarrachoides) competitionwith two potato varieties. Weed Sci. 59: 37-42.

Jafari, R., F. Veisanlo. and R. Javan. 2013. Weeds associated with potato (Solanum tuberosum) crops. Intl. J. Agri. Crop Sci. 6(20): 1403-1406.

Judice, W. E., J. L. Griffin, L. M. Etheredge. and C. A. Jones. 2007. Effects of crop residue management and tillage on weed control and sugarcane production. Weed Technol. 21: 606-611.

Kumar, S., S. Sood, R. C. Sharma, V. L. Kasana, B. Pathania. and R. D. Singh. 2014. Effect of plant spacing and organic mulch on growth, yield and quality of natural sweetener plant Stevia and soil fertility in western Himalayas. Intl. J. Plant Prod. 8(3): 311-334.

Kunz, C., J. F. Weber. and R. Gerhards. 2015. Benefits of precision farming technologies for mechanical weed control in soybean and sugar beet comparison of precision hoeing with conventional mechanical weed control. Agron. J. 5(2): 130-142.

Leite, L. F. C., F. C. Oliveira, A. S. F. Araújo, S. R. S. Galvão. and J. O. Lemos. 2010. Soil organic carbon and biological indicators in an Acrisol under tillage and organic management in north eastern Brazil. Soil Res. 48: 258–265.

Li, S. X., Z. H. Wang, S. Q. Li, Y. J. Gao. and X. H. Tian. 2013. Effect of plastic sheet mulch, wheat straw mulch, and maize (Zea mays L.) growth on water loss by evaporation in dryland areas of China. Agri. Water Manag. 116: 39-49.

Lu, R. K. 2000. Method of Soil Chemistry Analyses. Agri. Sci. Tech. Press China. Beijing. pp. 106-109.

Majd, R., H. R. Mohammaddust Chamanabad, M. T. Alebrahim. and G. A. Nateghi. 2014. The evaluation of solarization efficacy with polyethylene sheet mixed with chemical and physical treatments for weeds control and potato yield. Res. Crop Ecosys. 1(2): 33-43.

Maldonado, J. A., J. J. Osornio, A. T. Barragan. and A. L. Anaya. 2001. The use of allelopathic legume cover and mulch species for weed control in cropping systems. Agron. J. 93: 27-36.

Mohammadduost Chamanabad, H. R., A. Asghari1, G. H. R. Habibi. and K. B. Pourmorad. 2011. Effect of herbicides and crop residue on integrated weed control in potato. Electronic J. Crop Prod. 4(1): 171-185.

Najafi, H., M. Hasanzadeh, M. H. Rashaed Mohasel, E. Zand. and M. A. Baghestani. 2016. Ecological management of agricultural weeds. Plant Protec. Res. Inst. pp. 559-565.

Ogle, S. M., F. J. Breidt. and K. Paustian. 2005. The agriculturl management impacts on soil organic carbon under moist and dry conditions of temperate and tropical regions. Biogeochem. J. 72: 87-121.

Pawlonka, Z., K. Rymuza, K. Starczewski. and A. Bombik. 2015. Biodiversity segetal weed community in continuous potato cultivated by metribuzin. JOPPR. 55(1): 53-58.

Rashed Mohassel, M. H., H. Naajafi. and M. D. Akbarzadeh. 2000. Weed biology and control. Ferdowsi Univ. Pub. pp 404.

Roldan, A., G. J. R. Salinas, M. M. Alguacil, E. Diaz. and F. Caravaca. 2005. Changes in soil enzyme activity, fertility aggregation and C sequestration mediated by conservation tillage practices. Soil Ecol. 30: 11–20.

Shahrad, Z. 2010. The effect of Trifluralin herbicide on soil bacteria populations in cotton field. Msc. Thesis. Department of Soil Sci. Soil and Water Eng. Group. Gorgan Univ. Agric. Sci. Natural Res. Iran.

Sheikhi-Gorjan, A., H. Najafi, S. Abbassi, F. Saber, M. Rashid. 2012. A guideline for pesticides in Iran. Payetakht Book Pub. p. 395.

Shiyam, J. O., J. C. Obiefuna, M. C. Ofoh. and B. F. D. Oko. 2011. Effect of sawdust mulch and fertilizer on weed flora composition and growth in plantain/cocoyam intercrop in the Nigerian rainforest zone. World J. Agri. Sci. 7(5): 629-632.

Weber, J. F., C. H. Kunz. and R. Gerhards. 2016. Chemical and mechanical weed control in soybean (Glycine max L.). Univ. Hohenheim. Inst. Phytomedicine. Otto-Sander-Strabe 5. 70599 Stuttgart. Germany. pp. 171-176.

Wu, J., R. G. Joergensen. and B. Pommerening. 1990. Measurement of soil microbial biomass C by fumigation extraction an automatic procedure. Soil Biol. Biochem. 22: 1167–1169.

Yao, H. Y., Z. L. He, M. J. Wilson. and C. D. Campbell. 2000. Microbial community structure in a sequence of soil with increasing fertility and changing land use on Chinese red soils. Microbiol. Ecol. 40: 223–237.

Zaki, M. M., E. A. Saleh, H. Mohamed Sonya, A. Rahal. and A. S. Sadik. 2014. Persistence of sencor herbicide in streptomycetes-inoculated soil and its effect on some microbial soil. Intl. J. Curr. Microbiol. App. Sci. 3(3): 726-738.

Zand, E., M. A. Baghestani, A. Bitarafan. and P. Shimi. 2007. A guidline for herbicides in Iran. Jihad Daneshgahi Mashhad Pub. 111 p.

Zhang, F., M. Li, J. Qi, F. Li. and G. Sun. 2015. Plastic film mulching increases soil respiration in ridge-furrow maize management. Arid Land Res. Manag. 29(4): 432-453.

Zhang, Q. C., I. H. Shamsi, D. T. Xu, G. H. Wang. and X. Y. Lin. 2012. Chemical fertilizer and organic manure inputs in soil exhibit a vice versa pattern of microbial community structure. Appl. Soil Ecol. 57: 1–8.