Podagrica Uniforma and Nisota dilecta (Coleoptera: Chrysomalidae) Infesta-tion on Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) in Response to Nutrient Sources

Authors

1 Department of Crop, Soil and Pest Management Technology Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, P. M. B. 1019, Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria.

2 Department of Biology, School of Science Federal University of Technology, P. M. B. 704, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria.

3 Department of Crop, Soil and Pest Management, Federal University of Technology, P. M. B. 704, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: The ability of a plant to resist or tolerate pests is grounded partially in favorable physical, chemical and biological properties of soil.
OBJECTIVES: Investigate the influence of nutrient sources on Podagrica uniforma and Nisota dilecta infestation, population dynamics and performances of okra.
METHODS: The experiment was conducted in a Randomized Complete Block Design with 4 treatments (5 t.ha-1 poultry manure, 5 t.ha-1 pig manure, 5 t.ha-1 cattle manure and control (no manure), replicated three times. P. uniforma and N. dilecta (Coleoptera: Chrysomalidae) infestation on okra in respond to nutrient sources application were investigated at the Teaching and Research Farm of Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria during 2015 and 2016 cropping seasons.
RESULT: The experiment showed that pig manure recorded the lowest amount of defoliation (17.0 ± 6.15 and 8.66 ± 2.62) in both planting season, it also recorded a low number of fruits in 2015 and 2016 planting season (3.00 ± 3.46 and 2.11 ± 1.92) and fruit weight (21.04 ± 26.37 and 12.26 ± 10.52) respectively. The highest yield (number of fruits) was recorded in poultry manure in 2015 (6.00 ± 3.61) and control in 2016 (4.66 ± 4.25), the highest fruit weight was recorded in control plot in both planting seasons (61.75 ± 52.00 and 43.04 ± 40.36). Poultry manure recorded moderate amount of defoliation (19.73 ± 21.42 and 9.57 ± 3.10) along the season. Also poultry manure record moderate amount of defoliation also record the highest number of yield (3.58 ± 3.52) when compared to other treatment (pig, cattle and control). It was concluded that poultry manure is best suitable for the production of okra.
CONCLUSION: Both pig and poultry manure are best for controlling P. uniforma and N. dilecta infestation on okra as they both show greater tolerant and compensatory ability and thus recommended for the management and suppression of P. uniforma and N. dilecta population in studied area.

Keywords


Adesina, J. M. and L. A. Afolabi. 2014. Comparative bio efficacy of aqueous extracts of Loncarpous cyanescens and Trema orientalis against Flea beetle (Podarica spp.)(Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) infestation and yield of okra. Intl. J. Hort. 4(2): 4-9.

Adesina, J. M. and D. K. Ileke. 2014. Insecticidal Efficacy of Mitrocarpus villosus and Momordica charantia Extracts for the Control of Flea Beetles Podagrica spp. Jacq. (Coleoptera: Chysomelidae) on Okra Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench. Med. Plant Res. 4(1): 1-5.

Adilakshmi, A., D. M. Korat. and P. R. Vaishnau. 2007. Effect of organic and inorganic fertilizers on insect pests infesting okra. Karnataka J. Agric. Sci. 21(2): 287-289.

Akande, M. O. and J. A. Adediran. 2004. Effects of terralyt plus fertilizer on growth nutrients uptake and dry matter yield of two vegetable crops. Moor J. Agric. Res. 5: 12-107.

Akinrinde, E. A. and G. O. Obigbesan. 2000. Evaluation of the fertility status of selected soils for crop production in five ecological zones of Nigeria. Proc. 26th Annual Conf. Soil Sci. Soc. Nigeria. Ibadan. Nigeria. pp. 279-288.

Aluko, O. A., S. O. Olanipekun, A. Kareem. and O. N. Adeniyan. 2014. Effect of organic and inorganic fertilizer on the yield and nutrient composition of Jute mallow. Global J. Agric. Res. 2(3): 1-9.

Atijegbe, S. R., B. O. Nuga, N. E. S. Lale. and R. N. Osayi. 2014. Effect of organic and inorganic fertilizers on Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) production and incidence of insect pests in the humid tropics. J. Agri. Vet. Sci. pp. 25-30.

Cardoso, M. O., A. P. Oliveira, W. E. Pereira. and A. P. Souza. 2009. Eggplant growth as affected by cattle manure and magnesium thermo phosphate in association cow urine. Horti. Brasileira. 27: 307-313.

Chino, M., H. Hayashi. and W. E.T. Fukumoto. 1987. Composition of rice phloem sap and its fluctuation. J. Plant Nutr. 10: 1651-1661.

Clementine, L., L. Dabiré-Binso, N. Malick, S. Ba-Koussao. and S. Antoine. 2009. Preliminary studies on incidence of insect pest on okra, Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench in central Burkina Faso. Afr. J. Agri. Res. 4(12): 1488-1492.

Enujeke, E. C. 2013. Response of watermelon to five different rates of poultry manure in Asaba area of Delta state, Nigeria. J. Agri. Vet. Sci.5(2): 45-50.

Ewulo, B. S. 2005. Effect of poultry and cattle manure on sandy clay loam soil. J. Anim. Vet. Sci. 4: 839-841.

Federal Ministry of Agricultural and Natural Resources (FMANR). 1996. Soil fertility investigation, Fertility ratings. Produced by the Federal Ministry of Agriculture. Lagos. Nigeria.

Huber, D. M. and R. D. Graham. 1989. The Role of nutrition in crop resistance and tolerance to disease. In: Mineral Nutrition of Crops Fundamental Mechanism and Implication, Rengel, Z. (Ed.). Food Product Press. New York. USA. pp: 169-226.

Ikpe, F. N. and J. M. Powel. 2002. Nutrient cycling practices and changes in soil properties in the crop-livestock farming systems of western Nigeria. Nutr. Cyc. Agro-Eco-syst. 62: 37-45.

International institute for Tropical Agriculture (IITA) 1979. Laboratory manual for soil and plant analysis. Manual series 7. IITA. Ibadan. Nigeria.

Luna, J. 1988. Influence of soil fertility practices on agricultural pests. In: P. Allen and Van Dusen (Eds.). Global perspectives in agroecology and sustainable agricultural systems. Proc. 60th Intl. Sci. Organic Agri. Move. Univ. California. Santa Cruz. pp. 589-600.

Magdoff, F. and H. Vanes. 2000. Building soils for better crops. Handbook Series No. 4. Beltsville. p. 230.

Merill, M. C. 1983. Bio-agriculture: A review of its history and philosophy. Biol. Agri. Hort. 1: 181-210.

Meyer, G. A. 2000. Interactive effects of soil fertility and herbivory on Brassica nigra. Oikos. 22: 433-441.

Naveed, A., A. A. Khan. and I. A. Khan. 2009. Generation mean analysis of water stress tolerance in okra. Pak. J. Bot. 41: 195-205.

Okonmah, L. U. 2012. Effects of various organic manures on the growth and yield of Maize in Asaba zone. Asian J. Sci. Tech. 4(11): 6-9.

Olaniyi J. O., W. B. Akanbi, O. A. Olaniran and O. T. Ilupeju. 2010. The effect of organo mineral and inorganic fertilizer on the growth, fruit yield quality and chemical composition of okra. J. Anim. Plant Sci. 9: 11354-1140.

Palaniappan, S. P. and K. Annadurai 1999. Organic farming: Theory and practice. Sci. Publ. Jodhpur. India.

Phelam, P. L., J. F. Mason. and B. R. Stinner. 1995. Soil fertility management and host preference by European corn, Ostrinia nubilalis, on Zea mays: A comparison of organic and conventional chemical farming. Agric. Eco-Syst. Environ. (56): 1-8.

Raikar, S. D., B. S. Vyakaranahal, D. P. Biradar. and J B. Sanagoudar. 2009. Effect of nutrient and pest management on seed yield and quality components in scented rice. Mugad. Karnataka J. Agri. Sci. 22: 61-67.

Ramesh, P., M. Singh. and A. Subba Rao 2005. Organic farming: Its relevance to the Indian context. Cur. Sci. 88(4): 561-568.

Rao, N. V. 1996. Research needs of non-pesticide approach in plant protection. Proc. National Workshop on Organic Farming for Sustainable Agri. 18-20 January. Hyderabad. India.

Rao, S. and R. Rajendran. 2003. Joint action potential of neem with other plant extracts against the leaf hopper Amrasca devastance (Distant) on okra. Pest Manage. Econ. Zool. 10: 131-136.

Santana-Gomez, S. M., C. R. Dias-Arieira, M. Roldi, T. S. Dadazio, P. M. Marini. and D. A. O. Barizao. 2013. Mineral nutrition control nematodes. Afr. J. Agric. Res. 8: 2413-2420.

Van-Embden, H. F. 1966. Studies on relations of insect and host plant. III. A comparison of the reproduction of Brevicoryne brassicae and Myzus persicae on brussels sprout plants supplied with different rates of nitrogen and potassium. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 9: 444-460.