Evaluation of Seed Yield, Its Component and Nitrogen Use Efficiency of Sorghum in Response to Nitrogen and Nitroxin Fertilizers


1 Msc. Graduated, Department of Agronomy, Ahvaz branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, Iran.

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Agronomy, Ahvaz branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, Iran.


BACKGROUND: Fertilizer management plays an important role for obtaining satisfactory yields and to increase crop productivity. Nutrient management may be achieved by the involvement of organic sources, bio fertilizers, and micro-nutrients.
OBJECTIVES: Assessment effect of chemical and biological fertilizer on seed yield, its components and plant height of Sorghum crop.
METHODS: This research was carried out via split plot experiment based on randomized complete blocks design with three replications. Pure nitrogen from urea source was used as the main plot in four levels (a1= 0 or control, a2= 50, a3= 100, a4= 150 KgNha-1) and Nitroxin bio-fertilizer was used as the sub plot in two levels (b1= nonuse of bio-fertilizer or control and b2= use of 1 L.ha-1 Nitroxin per 200 kg seeds).
RESULT: The results of analysis of variance indicated that the effect of different level of nitrogen and Nitroxin on all measured traits was significant but interaction effect of treatment was significant only on seed yield, number of seed per spike and nitrogen use efficiency traits at 1% probability level. The maximum number of spikelet per spike, seed per spikelet, seed per spike, 1000-seed weight, seed yield and nitrogen use efficiency belonged to the treatment with consumption of 150 KgNha-1 and also to the treatment with consumption of Nitroxin bio-fertilizer. Crop under 150 kg nitrogen treatments and not using fertilizers with the mean of 116 and 108 cm had the highest and lowest plant height.
CONCLUSION: Finally according result of current research consumption 150 Kg N ha-1 with 1 L.ha-1 Nitroxin led to achieve maximum seed yield (349 gr.m-2) and it can be advice to producers.


Aftab, W., A. Ghaffar, M. M. Khalid Hussain. and W. Nasim. 2007. Yield response of maize hydrides to varying nitrogen rates. Pak. J. Agri. Sci. 44(2): 217-220.

Ahmed, S. H., A. H. Gendy, A. A. M. Hussein, A. H. L. Said-Al. and F. Y. M. Hanaa. 2013. Effect of some nitrogen sources, bio-fertilizers and their interaction on the growth, seed yield and chemical composition of guar plants. Life Sci. J. 10(3): 389-402.

Ahmed, A. A., M. S. M. Hassan. and A. M. El-Naim. 2016. Evaluation of some local sorghum genotypes in north Kordofan of Sudan semi-arid agro-ecological environment. Intl. J. Agri. Forestry. 6(1): 54-57.

Alexandratos, N. 2003. World agriculture: Towards 2015-30. Cong. Global Food Security and Role of Sustainable Fertility. Rome. Italy.

Alikhani, M. A., F. Etemadi. and A. F. Ajirlo. 2012. Physiology basis of yield difference in grain sorghum in a semi-arid environment. J. Agri. Biol. Sci. 7(7): 488-496.

Almodares, A., M. Jafarinia. and M. R. Hadi. 2009. The effects of nitrogen fertilizer on the chemical compositions in corn and Sorghum. American-Eurasian J. Agric. Environ. Sci. 6(4): 441-446.

Amiri, M., M. Mojaddam, A. R. Shokouhfar. and N. Bakhtiarinejad. 2014. The effect of different levels and time of nitrogen application on grain yield, some physiological traits and nitrogen use efficiency in grain sorghum. Indian J. Fund. Appl. Life Sci. 4(3): 223-227.

Asadi-Kupal, P. and Q. E. Zadeh-Laserjan. 2009. Effect of bio-fertilizers and soil texture on rice growth. 1st Reg. Conf. Water Res. Manage. It’s Role in Agri. Islamic Azad Univ. Shahreh-Ghods Iran. (Abstract in English)

Asghari, E., K. Razmjoo. and M. Mazaheri Tehrani. 2006. Effect of nitrogen rates on yield and yield components and grain protein of grain sorghum. J. Agric. Sci. Natur. Resour. 13(1): 49-57.

Azarpour, E., M. Moraditochaee. and H. R. Bozorgi. 2014. Effect of nitrogen fertilizer management on growth analysis of rice cultivars. Intl. J. Bio-Sci. 4(5): 35-47.

Bawder, T. A and R. M. Waskom. 2003. Best management practices for Colorado Corn. Colorado State Univ. Coop. Ext. Serv– Agri. XCM 574 A- No. 514.

Bebawi, F. F. 1981. Response of sorghum cultivars and striga population to nitrogen fertilization. J. Plant Soil. 59: 261-267.

Beyaert, R. P. and R. C. Roy. 2005. Influence of nitrogen fertilization on multi-cut forage sorghum, Sudan grass yield and nitrogen use. Agron. J. 97: 1493-1501.

Biari, A., A. Gholami. and H. A. Rahmani. 2008. Growth promotion and enhanced nutrient uptake of maize by application of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria in arid region of Iran. J. Biol. Sci. Biotech. Adv. 19: 135-138.

Cathcart, R. J. and C. J. Swanton. 2003. Nitrogen management will influence threshold values of green foxtail in corn. Weed Sci. 51: 975-986.

Chen, J. 2006. The combined use of chemical and organic fertilizers and/or bio-fertilizer for crop growth and soil fertility. Intl. Workshop Sust. Manag. Soil Rhizosphere Sys. Efficient Crop Prod. Fertilizer Use. 16-20 Oct. Thailand. pp. 11.

Cocking, E. C. 2003. Endophytic colonization of plant roots by nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Plant Soil. J. 252: 169-175.

Collins, M., M. A. Brinkman. and A. Salman. 1990. Forage yield and quality of oat cultivars with increasing rate of nitrogen fertilization. Agron. J.82: 724-728.

Craswell, E. T. and D. C. Godwin. 1984. The efficiency of nitrogen fertilizers applied to cereals in different climates. Adv. In Plant Nutrition. New York. USA. 1: 1-55.

Delate, K. and C. A. Camberdella. 2004. Agro-eco-system performance during transition to the certified organic grain production. Agron. J. 96: 1288-1298.

El-Naim, A. M., K. E. Mohammed, E. A. Ibrahim. and N. N. Suleiman. 2012. Impact of salinity on seed germination and early seedling growth on three sorghum cultivar. J. Sci. Tech.2(2): 16-20.

Fallahi, J., A. Koocheki. and P. Rezvani-Moghaddam. 2008. Effects of bio-fertilizers on quantitative and qualitative yield of chamomile as a medicinal plant. J. Agri. Res. 7: 127–135.

Fulchirri, M. and I. Frioni. 1994. Azospirillum inoculation on maize: effect on yield in a field experiment in central argentine. J. Soil Biol. Bio-Chem. 26: 921-923.

Gaind, S. and A. C. Gaur. 1989. Effects of pH on phosphate solubilization by microbes. J. Current Sci. 58: 1208-1211.

Gardner, J. C., J. W. Maranville. and E. T. Paparozzi. 1994. Nitrogen use efficiency among diverse sorghum cultivars. Crop Sci. 34: 728-733.

Garg, B. K., S. Kathju. and S. P. Vyas .2005. Salinity-fertility interaction on growth. Photosynthesis and nitrate reductase activity in sesame. Indian J. Plant Physiol. 10: 162-167.

Gholami, A., M. Taghizadeh. and N. Moalemi. 2013. The scrutiny of interaction between iron Nano-chelate and chlophony hydrogel on soil chemical and nutritional properties. J. Appl. Polymer Sci. 2(8): 214-218.

Gray, E. J. and D. L. Smith. 2005. Intracellular and extracellular PGPR: Commonalities and distinctions in the plant- bacterium signaling processes. Soil Biol. Bio-chem. J. 37: 395-412.

Guo, J. H., X. J. Liu, Y. Zhang, J. L. Shen, W. X. Han, W. F. Zhang, P. Christie, K. W. T. Goulding, P. M. Vitousek. and F. S. Zhang. 2010. Significant acidification in major Chinese croplands. Sci. J. 327: 1008-1010.

Hamidi, A. and A. Dabbagh-Mohammadi-Nasab. 2000. Effects of plant density on crop nitrogen use efficiency in corn hybrid. J. Agri. Sci. 10: 57-43.

Hamidi, A., A. Asqarzadeh, R. Chokan, M. Dehghan-Shoar, A. Ghalavand. and M. Jafarmalakoti. 2007. Study of plant growth promoting rihizobacteria bio-fertilizers application in maize cultivation by adequate input. J. Environ. Sci. 4: 1-20. (Abstract in English)

Hammad, H. M., A. Ahmad, A. Wajid. and J. Akhter. 2011. Maize response to time and rate of nitrogen application. Pak. J. Bot. 43: 1935-1942.

Hassanpour, R., H. Pyrdshty, M. Ismaili. and A. Abbasids. 2011. Effects of nitrogen biological fertilizeron yield and yield components ofsesame varieties. Proc. 11th Cong. Agron. Plant Breed. 4th August. Beheshti Univ. pp: 4217-4220. (Abstract in English).

Hasanuzzaman, M., K. U. Ahamed, K. Nahar. and N. Akhter. 2010. Plant growth pattern, tiller dynamics and dry matter accumulation of wetland rice (Oryza sativa L.) as influenced by application of different manures. Nature and Sci. J. 8(4): 1-10. In: Rosegrant, M. W. and J. A. Roumasset. Economic feasibility of green manure in rice-based cropping systems. Proc. Sym. Sustainable Agriculture. The Role Green Manures Crops in Rice Farming Systems. IRRI. Manila. Philippines. May 25-29. 1987-1988. pp. 11-27.

Hegde, D. M., B. S. Dwived. and S. .N. Sudhakara. 1999. Bio-fertilizers for cereal production in India. a review. Indian J. Agri. Sci. 69: 73-83.

Hirel, B., J. Le. Gouis, B. Ney. and A. Gallais. 2007. The challenge of improving nitrogen use efficiency in crop plants: towards a more central role for genetic variability and quantitative genetics within integrated approaches. J. Exp. Bot. 58(9): 2369-2387.

Hirpa, T. 2014. Response of maize crop to spatial arrangement and staggered inter seeding of haricot bean. Intl. J. Environ. 3: 126-138.

Huggins, D. R. and W. L. Pan. 1993. Nitrogen efficiency component analysis: an evaluation of cropping system differences in productivity. Agron. J.85: 895-905.

Jaynes, D. B., T. S. Colvin, D. L. Karlen, C. A. Cambardella. and D. W. Meek. 2001. Nitrate loss in subsurface drainage as affected by nitrogen fertilizer rate. J. Environ. Quality. 30: 1305-1314.

Joorabi, S., N. Akbari, M. R. Chaichi. and Kh. Azizi. 2015. Effect of sowing date and nitrogen fertilizer on sorghum forage production in a summer intercropping system. J. Cercetări Agron. Moldova. 3(163): 63-72.

Karic, L., S. Vukasinovic. and D. Znidarcic. 2005. Response of leek to different levels of nitrogen dose under agro-climate conditions of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Acta Agri. Slovenica. 85: 219-226.

Kemal, Y. O. and M. Abera. 2015. Contribution of integrated nutrient management practice for sustainable crop productivity, nutrient uptake and soil nutrient status in Maize based cropping systems. J. Nutr. 2(1): 1-10.

Kennedy, I. R., A. T. M. A. Choudhury. and M. L. Kecskes. 2004. Non-symbiotic bacterial diazotrophs in crop-farming systems: can their potential for plant growth promotion is better exploited?. Soil Biol. Biochem. 36: 1229-1244.

Kholdi, A., Sh. Sedaghathoor. and E. Poursafarali. 2015. Effect of Nitroxin and humic acid on yield and yield components of Faba bean. J. Agri. Sci. 60(3): 361-367.

Kizilkaya, R. 2008. Yield response and nitrogen concentration of spring wheat inoculated with A. chroococcum strains. Ecol. Eng. 33: 150-156.

Kumar, B., P. Pandey. and D. K. Maheshwari. 2009. Reduction in dose of chemical fertilizers and growth enhancement of sesame with application of rhizospheric competent P. aeruginosa LES4. Europe. J. Soil Biol. 45: 334–340.

Kupulnik, Y., S. Sarig, A. Nur, Y. Okan. and Y. Henis. 1982. Effect of Azospirillum inoculation on growth and yield maize. Israel J. Bot. 31: 247-255.

Ladha, K. J., H. Pathak, T. J. Krupnik, J. Six. and C. Van-Kessel. 2005. Efficiency of fertilizer nitrogen in cereal production: Retrospect and prospects. J. Adv. Agron. 87: 85-156.

Mahmud, K., I. Ahmad. and M. Ayub. 2003. Effect of nitrogen and phosphorus on the fodder yield and quality of two sorghum cultivars. J. Agri. Biol. Sci. 5: 61-63.

Majidian, M., E. A. L. Ghalavand. and N. A. Karimian. 2006. Effect of drought stress, nitrogen and organic fertilizer at different growth stages on corn traits. Conf. Ecol. Iran. October 26-25. Gorgan Univ. 3108-3099. (Abstract in English)

Malakuoti, M. J. and M. Nafisi. 1992. Fertilization of dry matter and irrigation soils.Publ. Tarbiat Modarres Univ. 342p

Manaffee, W. F. and J. W. Kloepper. 1994. Applications of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria in Sustainable Agriculture. In: C. E. Pankburst, B. M. Doube, V. V. S. R. Gupta. and P. R. Grace. Soil Biota Management in Sustainable Farming Systems. Eds. 23-31 CSIRO. Publ. East Melbourne. Australia.

Mansouri-Far, C., S. A. M. Modarres-Sanavy. and S. F. Saberali. 2010. Maize yield response to deficit irrigation during low-sensitive growth stages and nitrogen rate under semiarid climatic conditions. Agri. Water Manage. 97: 12-22.

Mengel, K. and E. A. Kirkby. 2001. Principles of Plant Nutrition. Kluwer Academic Publ. 95 p.

Mirlohi, A., N. Honorable. and C. E. Bassiri. 2010. Nitrogen fertilizer effects on growth, yield and quality the hybrid forage sorghum silage Tuesday. Sci. Tech. Agri. Natural Res.Chapter 4. 2: 105-115.

Moghimi, N. and Y. Emam. 2015. Growth and yield responses of two forage sorghum cultivars to different nitrogen fertilizer rates. J. Iran Agri. Res. 34(1) 39-45.

Moosavi, S. Gh., M. J. Seghatoleslami. and R. Arefi. 2013. Effect of N fertilization and plant density on yield and yield components of grain sorghum under climatic conditions of Sistan, Iran. J. Sci. Agri. 3 (1): 1-8. PSCI Publ.

Muchow, R. 1988. Effect of nitrogen supply on the comparative productivity of maize and sorghum in a semi-arid tropical environment. I. Leaf growth and leaf nitrogen. Field Crop Res. 18: 1-16.

Muchow, R. C. 1998. Nitrogen utilization efficiency in maize and grain sorghum. Field Crops Res. 56: 209-216.

Muchow, R. C. 1990. Effect of nitrogen on partitioning and yield in grain sorghum under differing environmental conditions in the semi-arid tropics. Field Crops Res. 25: 265-278.

Nawas-Nazanat, G., M. Sawar, T. Yousaf. and A. Nasseb .2005. Yield and yield component of sunflower as affected by various NPK levels. Asian J. Plan Sci. 2(7): 561-562.

Nouraki, F., M. AlaviFazel, A. Naderi, E. Panahpoor. and Sh. Lack. 2016. Effects of integrated management of bio and chemical fertilizers on yield of maize hybrids. J. Exp. Biol. Agri. Sci. 4(4): 421-426.

Olugbemi, O. 2017. Sweet sorghum and nitrogen fertilizer application: A review. J. Agri. Sci. 2: 28-35.

Pieters, A. J. 2005. Green manuring: Principles and Practice. Agro-bios. Jodhpur. 356 pp.

Pourmizza, A. and M. Tajbakhsh. 2003. Growing of cereals. Publ. Univ. Jihad. West Azarbaijan, pp: 273-284.

Rahi, A. R. 2013. Effect of nitroxin biofertilizer on morphological and physiological traits of Amaranthus retroflexus. Iranian J. Plant Physiol. 4(1): 899-905.

Rai, S. N. and A. C. Caur. 1998. Characterization of Azotobacter Spp. and effect of A. lipoferum on the yield and N-Uptake of wheat crop. J. Plant and Soil. 109: 131-134.

Rajendran, K. and P. Devaraj. 2004. Biomass and nutrient distribution and their return of Casuarina equisetifolia inoculated with bio-fertilizers in farm land. J. Biomass and Bioenergy. 26: 235-249.

Ramosa, T. B., J. Simunek, M. C. Goncalves, J. C. Martins, A. Prazeres. and L. S. Pereira. 2012. Two-dimensional modeling of water and nitrogen fate from sorghum irrigated with fresh and blended saline waters. J. Agri. Water Manage. 111: 87-104.

Raun, W. R. and G. V. Johnson. 1999. Improving nitrogen use efficiency for cereal production. Agron. J. 91: 357–363.

Raun, W. R., J. B. Solie, G. V. Johnson, M. L. Stone, R. W. Mullen, K. W. Freeman, W. E. Thomason, E. V. Lukina. 2002. Improving nitrogen use efficiency in cereal grain production with optical sensing and variable rate application. Agron. J. 94: 815-820.

Sarige, S., A. Blum. and Y. Okon. 1988. Improvement of the water status and yield of field-grown seed sorghum by inoculation with A. brasilense. J. Agri. Sci. 110: 271-277.

Senanayake, N., R. E .L. Naylor, S. K. De-Datta. and W. J. Thomson. 1994. Variation in development of contrasting rice cultivars. J. Agri. Sci. 123: 35-39.

Sepehri, A., M. Modares Sanavi, B. Gharayazi. and V. Yamini. 2002. The effect of water stress and different levels of nitrogen on growth, yield, and yield components of maize. Iranian J. Crop Sci. 4(3): 184-201.

Shaban, M. 2013. Biochemical aspects of protein changes in seed physiology and germination. Intl. J. Adv. Biol. Bio-Medical Res. 1(8): 885-898.

Shah, Z., S. H. Shah, M. B. Peoples, G. D. Schwenke. and D. F. Herriedge. 2003. Crop residue and fertilizer N effects on nitrogen fixation and yields of legume nitrogen cereal rotations and soil organic fertility. Field Crops Res. 83: 1-11.

Shamme, S. K, C. V. Raghavaiah, T. Balemi. and I. Hamza. 2016. Sorghum growth, productivity, nitrogen removal, N-use efficiencies and economics in relation to genotypes and nitrogen nutrition in Kellem-Wollega zone of Ethiopia, East Africa. Adv. Crop Sci. Tech 4: 218-226.

Sharma, A. K. 2003. Bio-fertilizers for sustainable agriculture. Agrobios Publ. India.

Sheehy, J. E., M. J. A. Dionora, P. L. Mitchell, S. Peng, K. G. Cassman, G. Lemaire. and R. L. Williams. 1998. Critical nitrogen concentrations: implications for high-yielding rice cultivars in tropics. Field Crops Res. 59: 31-41.

Shevananda, A. 2008. Influence of bio-fertilizers on the availability of nutrients (NPK) in soil in relation to growth and yield of Stevia grown in South India. Intl. J. Appl. Res. Nat. Prod. 1: 20-24.

Shoaei, Sh., Gh. Noor-mohammadi, R. Choukan, A. Kashani, H. Heydari Sharifabad. and F. Rafiei. 2012. Study of nutrient accumulation in the aerial and forage yield affected by using of Nitroxin, super nitro plus and biophosphor in order to reduce consumption of chemical fertilizers and drought-resistant in corn. Adv. Environ. Biol. 6(1): 125-131. In: H. Porhanife. 2010. Biological fertilizer. Agriculture world. Available at:


Singh, M., B. A. Krantz. and G. B. Baird. 1972. Agronomic production techniques in sorghum. In: G. P. N. Rao. and L. R. House. (Eds.). Sorghum in seventies. Oxford and IBH Publ. Co. New Delhi. India. pp: 302-333.

Singh, D. K., A. K. Pandey, U. B. Pandey. and S. R. Bhonde. 2002. Effect of farmyard manure combined with foliar application of NPK mixture and micronutrients on growth, yield and quality of Onion. Newsletter-Natl. Horti. Res. Develop. Found. 21-22: 1-7.

Singh, R., R. K. Behl, K. P. Singh, P. Jain. and N. Narula. 2004. Performance and gene effects for wheat yield under inoculation of Arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi and Azotobacter chroococcum. Haryana Agri. Univ. Hisar. India. Plant Soil Environ. 50(9): 409-415.

Souza, S. R., E. Mariam, L. M. Stark. and M. S. Fernandes. 1998. Nitrogen remobilization during the reproductive period in two Brazilian rice varieties. J. Plant Nutr. 21: 2049-2053.

Staley, T. E, W. L. Stout. and G. A. Jung. 1991. Nitrogen use by tall fescue and swich grass on acidic soils of varying water holding capacity. Agron. J.83: 732-738.

Sturz, A. V. and B. R. Chrisite. 2003. Beneficial microbial allelopathies in the root zone: The management of soil quality and plant disease with Rhizobacteria. J. Soil and Tillage Res. 73: 107-123.

Szulc, P. 2013. Effects of soil supplementation with urea and magnesium on nitrogen uptake, and utilization by two different forms of maize differing in senescence rates. Polish J. Environ. Stud. 22: 239-248.

Tarang, E., M. Ramroudi, M. Galavi, M. Dahmardeh. and F. Mohajeri. 2013. Effects of Nitroxin bio-fertilizer with chemical fertilizer on yield and yield components of grain corn. Intl. J. Agri. Sci. 3(5): 400-405.

Tayefe, M., A. Gerayzade, E. Amiri. and A. Nasrollah-Zade. 2011. Effect of nitrogen fertilizer on nitrogen uptake, nitrogen use efficiency of rice. Intl. Conf. Biol. Environ. Chem. IACSIT Press. Singapore. pp: 470-473.

Upadhyaya, N. C., N. Singh, S. Ranwal. and P. Kumar. 2003. Response of two potato cultivars to vermicompost and inorganic fertilizers. J. Indian Potato Assoc. 30: 85-86.

Vanderlip, R. L. 2012. How a sorghum plant develops. Kansas State Univ. Press. USA. 20 p.

Wu, S. C., Z. H. Caob, Z. G. Lib, K. C. Cheunga. and M. H. Wong. 2005. Effects of bio-fertilizer containing N-fixer, P and K solubilizes and AM fungi on maize growth: a greenhouse trial. Geoderma. J. 125: 155-166.

Young, K. J. and S. P. Long. 2000. Crop ecosystem responses to climatic change: maize and sorghum. In: Reddy K. R. and H .F. Hodges. (Ed) Climate change and global crop productivity. CABI Publ. Wallingford. UK.

Yu, X., J. Cheng. and M. H. Wong. 2005. Earth worm mycorrhiza interaction on Cd uptake and growth of ryegrass. Soil Biol. Bio-Chem. 37: 195-201.

Zeid, I. M. 2008. Effect of arginine and urea on polyamines content and growth of bean under salinity stress. Acta Physiol. Plantarum. J. 28: 44-49.

Zhao, D., K. R. Reddy, V. G. Kakani. and V. R. Reddy. 2005. Nitrogen deficiency effects on plant growth, leaf photosynthesis and hyperspectral reflectance properties of sorghum. Europe. J. Agron. 22: 391-403.