Evaluation Anatomy of Flag Leaf of Rice Cultivars Affected Different Planting Dates under Dry and Warm Climate Condition in Southwest of Iran

Authors

1 Assistant Professor of Seed and Plant Improvement Research Department, Khuzestan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center, AREEO, Ahvaz, Iran.

2 Professor, Department of Agronomy, University of Agricultural and Natural Resources of Ramin, Ahvaz, Iran.

3 Research Instructor, Seed and Plant Improvement Research Department, Khuzestan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center, AREEO, Ahvaz, Iran.

4 PhD of Agronomy, Young Researchers and Elite Club, Dezful Branch, Islamic Azad University, Dezful, Iran.

Abstract

Current research was conducted during 2006 and 2007 cropping seasons to assessment the anatomy of the flag leaf and yield of rice in the Khuzestan province according split plot experiment based on randomized complete block design with three replications. Main plot included different sowing dates at three levels (5 May, 26 May and 16 June). Hoveizeh, Hamar (Heat tolerance), Ghermez Anbori, Champa (Heat sensitive) and Danial (Relatively heat tolerant) cultivars at five levels were belonged to sub-plots. The results of combined analyses showed that was a significant different in planting date by variety interaction in all of trades. On the other hand, the related temperature condition, varieties had different reaction. Given that metabolic energy is needed to transfer sugar in this path, reduction of phloem cell surface can predispose the material preservation and shortening the transfer path by reducing the rate of respiration and transfer intervals. In the other hand, size of phloem depends on the size of source and reservoir and their relationships. Highest and lowest levels of large vascular bundles were related to 2nd and 1st planting dates; but highest and lowest levels of small vascular bundles, xylem and phloem obtained in 2nd and 1st planting dates respectively.

Keywords


Ali, M. Y. and M. M. Rahman. 1992. Effect of seedling age and transplanting time on the late planted Aman rice. Bangladesh J. Training and Develop. 5: 75-83.

Ali, K. H., F. Y. Li, Y. Li, W. B. Wang. and Y. Y. Wu. 1989. Studies on the naphtoquinone constituents of Onosma confertum W. Smith and quantitative determination of shikonin. Acta Bot. Sin. J. 31(7): 549-553.

Allen, D. J. and D. R. Ort. 2001. Impacts of chilling temperatures on photosynthesis in warm and climate plants. Trend Plant Sci. J. 6(7): 36-42.

Alizadeh, M. A. and H. R. Isvand. 2006. Rice in Egypt. Rice and pulse office. Agronomy Deputy. Ministry of Jihad Agri. Publ. pp: 541.

Anon, S., J. A. A. Fernadez, J. Torrecillas, J. Alaroon. and M. J. Sanchez–Bloanco. 2004. Effects of water stress and night temperature precondition on water relations and morphological and anatomical changes of lotus creticus plants. Sci. Horti. 101: 333-342.

Butler, T. J., W. E. Gerald, M. A. Hussey. and J. R. Lavery. 2002. Rate of leaf appearance in crimsou clover. Crop Sci. 42: 237-241.

Carlquist, S. 1961. Comparative plant anatomy. Holt, Rinehart and Winston. New York. USA. 146 p.

Cutter, E. G. 1971. Plant anatomy, experiment and interpretation, Part II, Organs. Edward Amold Pub. LTD. London. UK. 343 p.

Dehghan, A. 2007. The effect of delayed planting date on grain yield and yield components of three sorghum in Khuzestan. Sci. J. Agri. 30(4): 123-132.

Dinesh, C., K. Lode, M. Sahoo, B. B. Nanda. and D. Chander. 1997. Effect of date of planting and spacing on grin yield and quality of scented rice varieties in wet season in coastal Orissa. Indian J. Agri. Sci. 67: 93-97.

Farrell, T. C., K. Fox, R. L. Williams, S. Fukai. and L. G. Lewin. 2003. Avoiding low temperature damage in Australia's rice industry with the photoperiod sensitive cultivars. Proc. 11th Aust. Agron. Conf. Dakin Univ. Geelong. Feb. 2-6. Victoria. Australia.

Han, X. B., R. Q. Li. and J. B. Wang. 1997. Cellular structural comparison between the different themo resistant cultivars of Raphanus sativus L. under heat stress. Jwuhan Bot. Res. 15: 173-178. (Abstract in English)

Heywood, V. H. 1985. Flowering plants of the word. Oxford Univ. Press. 335 p.

Khayat, M., A. Rahnama, Sh. Lorzadeh. and Sh. Lack. 2014. Effect of planting date on yield of spring canola genotypes. Intl. J. Bio-Sci. 5(3): 94-99. In: Hakan-Ozer, E. O. and D. Unsal. 1999. Relationships between yield and yield components on the currently improved spring rapeseed cultivars. Turkish J. Agri. Forestry. 23: 603-607.

Lack, Sh., N. Mahdian Marani. and M. Mombeni. 2012. The effects of planting date on grain yield and yield components of Rice cultivars. Adv. Environ. Biol. 6(1): 406-413. In: Kim, J. K. and H. B. Krishnan. 2002. Making rice a perfect food: tuning dreams into reality. J. Crop Prod. 5(1-2): 93-130.

Limouchi, K., S. A. Siadat. and A. Gilani. 2013. Effect of planting time on flag leaf anatomy and yield of rice genotypes. Iranian J. Crop Sci. 15(2): 136-151. (Abstract in English)

MacKinnon, G. C. and N. A. Fettel. 2003. The effect of sowing time, supplementary water and variety on yield and oil concentration of canola. 30th Biennial Aust. Res. Assembly on Brassicas. Proc. Conf. Tamworth. New South Wales. Australia. pp. 8-12.

Metcalf, C. and R. Chalk. 1950. Anatomy of the dicoty ledones, Vol. III. Clarenden Press. Oxford. UK. 724 p.

Moosavi, M., Gh. Ranjbar, H. N. Zarrini. and A. Gilani. 2015. Correlation between morphological and physiological traits and path analysis of yield in rice genotypes in Khuzestan. Biol. Forum. Intl. J. 7(1): 43-47. In: Wu, P., H. Shou, G. Xu. and X. Lian. 2013. Improvement of phosphorus efficiency in rice basis of the understanding phosphate signaling and homeostasis. J. Current Opinion in Plant Biol. 16: 205-212.

Ort, D. R. 2002. Clilling-induced limitations on photosynthesis in warm climate plants contrasting mechanisms. Environ. Control Biol. 40: 7-18 (159).

Rudall, P. 1994. Anatomy and the systematic of Iridaceae. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 114(1): 1-21.

Zheng, X. L. and R. R. Dong. 1998. The study on rice’s reaction to heat shock: II. High temperature’s effect on Hill reaction and ultrastructure of chloroplast in late rice’s seedling leaves. J. Hunan Agri. Univ. 24: 351–354. (Abstract in English)

Zheng, G. L., L. I. Yun, C. Shun-tang, Z. Hua. and L. Guo-hua. 2009. Effects of high temperature stress on microscopic and ultra-structural characters tics of mesophyll cells in flag leaves of rice. Rice Sci. 16: 65-71.