Effects of Mycorrhizal Fungi and Nano Zinc Oxide on Seed Yield, Na+ and K+ Content of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under Salinity Stress


1 Professor, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran.

2 Ph.D Student (Crop Physiology), University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran.

3 M.Sc. Graduated (Agronomy), University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran.


This research was conducted to evaluate effects of mycorrhiza fungi and nano zinc oxide on agro physiological traits of wheat under salinity stress based on factorial experiment according complete randomized block design with three replications under greenhouse condition at 2014. Treatments included salinity in three levels [no-salt (S0) or control, salinity 40 (S1) and 80 (S2) mM NaCl], two level of Arbuscular Mycorrhiza (AM) fungal [no application (M0), application of mycorrhiza (M1)] and Nano zinc oxide at three levels [(without nano zinc oxide as control (Zn0), application of 0.4 (Zn1) and 0.8 g.lit-1) (Zn2)]. Analysis of variance showed significant effect for the soil salinity on seed yield, chlorophyll index, relative water content, stomata conductance, K+ content. chlorophyll index, stomata conductance, K+ content in plant root were affected by AM fungi and nano zinc oxide application. There was a significant interaction between salinity, AM fungi and nano zinc oxide on Na+ content, Na+/K+ ratio and seed yield. Salinity stress decreased seed yield, chlorophyll index, stomata conductance, and relative water content of wheat. The highest (0.44 g per plant) seed yield was obtained from plants under low salinity level, AMF (Arbuscular mycorrhiza fungal) and 0.8 g.lit-1 nano zinc oxide. The nutrient uptake Na+ and Na+/K+ ratio increased and potassium was decreased with increasing concentration of NaCl in the present study. However, the inoculated with AMF and application of nano zinc oxide significantly increased K+ and reduced Na+ uptake. Generally, it was concluded that AMF and nano zinc oxide can be as a proper tool for increasing wheat yield under salinity condition.


Abdel-Latef, A. A. and H. Chaoxing. 2011. Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on growth, mineral nutrition, antioxidant enzymes activity and fruit yield of tomato grown under salinity stress. J. Horti. Sci. 127: 228-233.

Abdel-Fattah, G. M. and A. A. Asrar. 2012. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal application to improve growth and tolerance of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plants grown in saline soil. J. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum. 34: 267–277.

Al-Halafi, A. M. 2014. Nano carriers of nanotechnology in retinal diseases. Saudi J. Ophthalmology. 2: 324-329.

Aroca, R., J. M. Ruiz-Lozano, A. Zamarreno, J. A. Paz, J. M. Garcia-Mina, M. J. Pozo. and J. A. Lopez-Raez. 2013. Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis influences strigolactone production under salinity and alleviates salt stress in lettuce plants. J. Plant Physiol. 170: 47–55.

Asghari, H. R, D. J. Chittleborough, F. A. Smith. and S. E. Smith. 2005. Influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis on phosphorus leaching through soil cores. J. Plant and Soil. 275: 181–193.

Auge, R. M. 2001. Water relations, drought and vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis. J. Mycorrhiza. 11(1): 3-42.

Azcón, R, Barea, J.M. 2010.Mycorrhizosphere interactions for legume improvement. In: M. S. Khanf, A. Zaidi, J. Musarrat, Editors. Microbes for legume improvement. Vienna. Springer. p. 237–71.

Balashouri, P. and Y. Prameeladevi. 1995. Effect of zinc on germination, growth, pigment content and phytomass of Vigna radiata and Sorghum bicolor. J. Eco-Biol. 7: 109-114.

Bartels, D. and R. Sunkar. 2005. Drought and salt tolerance in plants. CRCCrit. Rev. Plant Sci. J. 24: 23-58.

Bernstein, L. 1963. Osmotic adjustment of plant to saline media. Dynamic Phase. Am. J. Bot. 48: 909-918.

Bonfante, P. 2001. At the interface between mycorrhizal fungi and plants: the structural organization of cell wall, plasma membrane and cytoskeleton. In: Fungal Associations. Springer. pp. 45-61.

Cakmak, I. 2008. Enrichment of cereal seeds with zinc: agronomic or genetic bio-fortification? J. Plant and Soil. 302: 1-17.

Cakmak, H. 1997. Differential response of rye, triticale, bread and durum wheat to zinc deficiency in calcareous soils. J. Plant and Soil. 188(1): 1-10.

Dimkpa, C., T. Wein. and F. Ash. 2009. Plant-rhizobacteria interactions alleviate abiotic stress conditions. J. Plant and Cell Environ. 32: 1682–1694.

Evelin, H., B. Giri. and R. Kapoor. 2012. Contribution of Glomus intraradices inoculation to nutrient acquisition and mitigate ion of ionic imbalance in NaCl- stressed Trigonella foenum-graecum. J. Mycorrhiza. 22: 203–217.

Evelin, H., B. Giri. and R. Kapoor. 2013. Ultra structural evidence for AMF mediated salt stress mitigation in Trigonella foenum-graecum. J. Mycorrhiza. 23: 71–86.

Giri, B., R. Kapoor. and K. G. Mukerji. 2007. Improved tolerance of Acacia nilotica to salt stress by arbuscular mycorrhiza Glomus fasciculatum may be partly related to elevated K+/Na+ ratios in root and shoot tissues. Micro-Biol. J. 54: 753–760.

Garcia-Garrido, J. M. and J. A. Ocampo. 2002. Regulation of the plant defense response in arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis. J. Exp. Bot.53(373): 1377-1386.

Ghoochani, R., M. Riasat, S. Rahimi. and A. Rahmani. 2015. Biochemical and physiological characteristics changes of wheat cultivars under Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis and salinity stress. Biol. Forum. Intl. J. 7(2): 370-378.

Gobarah, Mirvat, E., M. H. Mohamed. and M. M. Tawfik. 2006. Effect of Phosphorus Fertilizer and Foliar Spraying with zinc on growth, yield and quality of groundnut under reclaimed sandy soils. J. Appl. Sci. Res. 2(8): 491-496.

Hajiboland, R., A. Aliasgharzadeh, S. F. Laiegh. and C. Poschenrieder. 2010. Colonization with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi improves salinity tolerance of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) plants. J. Plant Soil. 331: 313–327.

Hajiboland, R. and A. Joudmand. 2009. The K+/Na+ replacement and function of antioxidant defense system in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) cultivars. J. Plant Sci. 59: 246–259.

Hajiboland, R., N. Aliasgharzadeh, S. F. Laiegh. and C. Poschenreider. 2010. Colonization with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi improves salinity tolerance of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) plants. J. Plant Soil 331: 313–327.

Hu, Y., J. J. Oertli. and U. Schmidhalter. 1997. Interactive effects of salinity and macronutrient level on wheat. Composition. J. Plant Nutr.20: 1168-1182.

Huang, Y., J. Zhu, A. Z. Zhen, L. Chen. and Z. Bie. 2009. Organic and inorganic solutes accumulation in the leaves and roots of grafted and ungrafted cucumber plants in response to NaCl stress. J. Food Agri. Environ. 7(2): 703-708.

Hussain, M., M. A. Malik, M. Farooq, M. Y. Ashraf. and M. A. Cheema. 2008. Improving drought tolerance by exogenous application of glycine betaine and salicylic acid in sunflower. J. Agron. Crop Sci. 194: 193-199.

Iqbal, M. and M. Ashraf. 2013. Alleviation of salinity-induced perturbations in ionic and hormonal concentrations in spring wheat through seed preconditioning in synthetic auxins. J. Acta Physiol. Plant. 35: 1093–1112.

Izadi, M. H., J. Rabbani, Y. Emam, M. Pessarakli. and A. Tahmasebi. 2014. Effects of salinity stress on physiological performance of variouse wheat and barley cultivars. J. Plant Nutr. 37: 520-531.

Jifon, J. L., J. P. Sylvertsen. and E. Whaley. 2005. Growth environment and leaf anatomy affect nondestructive estimates of chlorophyll and nitrogen in Citrus sp. leaves. J. Am. Soc. Horti. Sci. 130: 152-158.

Kadian, N., K. Yadav, N. Badda. and A. Aggarwal. 2013. Application of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in improving growth and nutrient of Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (L.) Taub under saline soil. Intl. J. Agron. Plant Prod. 4: 2796–2805.

Katerji, N., J. W. Van Hoorn, A. Hamdy, M. Mastrorilli. and E. Mou-Karzel. 1997. Osmotic adjustment of sugar beets in response to soil salinity and Its influence on stomatal conductance, growth and yield. J. Agric. Water Manage. 34: 57-69.

Khan, H. R., G. K. McDonald. and Z. Rengel. 2003. Zn fertilization improves water use efficiency, seed yield and seed Zn content in chickpea. J. Plant and Soil. 249: 389-400.

Laware, S. L. and S. V. Raskar. 2014. Influence of zinc oxide nanoparticles on growth, flowering and seed productivity in onion. Intl. J. Curr. Microbiol. App. Sci. 3: 874-881.

Manchanda, G. and N. Garg. 2011. Alleviation of salt-induced ionic, osmotic and oxidative stresses in Cajanus cajan nodules by AM inoculation. J. Plant Bio-Sys. 145: 88-97.

Munns, R. 2002. Comparative physiology of salt and water stress. J. Plant Cell Environ. 25: 239–250.

Mardukhi, B., F. Rejali, G. Daei, M. R. Ardakani, M. J. Malakouti. and M. Miransari. 2015. Mineral uptake of mycorrhizal wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under salinity stress. J. Communications Soil Sci. Plant Analysis. 46(3): 343-357.

Nelsen, C. E. and G. R. Safir. 1982. The water relations of well-watered, mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal onion plants. J. Am. Soc. Horti. Sci. 107: 271–274.

Porcel, R., R. Aroca. and J. M. Ruiz-Lozano. 2012. Salinity stress alleviation using arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. A review: Agronomy for Sustainable Development. 32: 181–200.

Potarzycki, J. and W. Grzebisz. 2009. Effect of zinc foliar application on seed yield of maize and its yielding components. J. Plant Soil Environ. 55(12): 519-527.

Qiu-Dan, N., Z. Ying-Ning, W. Qiang-Sheng. and Y.M. Huang. 2013. Increased tolerance of citrus (Citrus tangerina) seedlings to soil water deficit after mycorrhizal inoculation: changes in antioxidant enzyme defense system. J. Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca.41(2): 524-529.

Reddy, A. R., K. V. Chaitany. and M. D. Vivekanandan. 2004. Drought induced responses of photosynthesis and antioxidant metabolism in higher plants. J. Plant Physiol.161: 1189-1202.

Rojas-Tapias, D., A. Moreno-Galván, S. Pardo-Díaz, M. Obando, D. Rivera. and R. Bonilla. 2012. Effect of inoculation with plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) on amelioration of saline stress in maize (Zea mays L.). Appl. Soil Ecology. 61: 264-272.

Rodriguez Rosales, M. P., L. Kerkeb, P. Bueno. and J. P. Donaire. 1999. Changes induced by NaCl in lipid content and composition, lipoxygenase, plasma membrane H+ ATPase and antioxidant enzyme activities of tomato (Lycopersicon esculantum, Mill) calli. J. Plant Sci. 143: 143-150.

Saed-Moucheshi, A., A. Shekoofa. and M. Pessarakli. 2014. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and detoxifying in plants. J. Plant Nutr. 37(10): 1573-85.

Sanchez-Blanco, M. J, T. Fernandez, M. A. Morales, A. Morte. and J. J. Alarcón. 2004. Variations in water status, gas exchange, and growth in Rosmarinus officinalis plants infected with Glomus deserticola under drought conditions. J. Plant Physiol. 161: 675-682.

Sharma, P. N, N. Kumar. and S. S. Bisht. 1994. Effect of zinc deficiency on chlorophyll content, photosynthesis and water relations of cauliflower plants. J. Photo synthetica. 30: 353-359.

Sharma, V., R. K. Shukla, N. Saxena, D. Parmar, M. Das. and A. Dhawan. 2009. DNA damaging potential of zinc oxide nanoparticles in human epidermal cells. J. Toxicology Letters. 185(3): 211–218.

Shekoofeh, E., H. Sepideh. and R. Roya. 2012. Role of mycorrhizal fungi and salicylic acid in salinity tolerance of Ocimum basilicum resistance to salinity. Afr. J. Biotech. 11(9): 2223-2235.

Sheng, M., M. Tang, H. Chen, B. Yang, F. Zhang. and Y. Huang. 2008. Influence of arbuscular mycorrhizae on photosynthesis and water status of maize plants under salt stress. J. Mycorrhiza. 18: 287–296.

Talaat, N. B. and B. T. Shawky. 2011. Influence of arbuscular mycorrhizae on yield, nutrients, organic solutes, and antioxidant enzymes of two wheat cultivars under salt stress. J. Plant Nutri. Soil Sci. 174: 283–291.

Tambussi, E. A., J. Bort, J. J. Guiamet, S. Nogués. and J. L. Araus. 2007. The photosynthetic role of ears in C3 cereals: metabolism, water use efficiency and contribution to seed yield. J. Critical Reviews in Plant Sci. 26: 1-16.

Tammam, A., M. F. Abou Alhamd. and M. Hemeda. 2008. Study of salt tolerance in wheat (Triticum aestium L.) cultivar Banysoif. Australian J. Crop Sci. 1: 115-125.

Tomar, N. S. and R. M. Agarwal. 2013. Influence of treatment of Jatropha curcas L. leachates and potassium on growth and phytochemical constituents of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). American Journal of Plant Science. 4: 1134–1150.

Upadhyay, S. K., J. S. Singh, A. K. Saxena. and D. P. Singh,. 2012. Impact of PGPR inoculation on growth and antioxidant status of wheat under saline conditions. J. Plant Biol. 14: 605- 611.

Very, A. A., M .F. Robinson, T. A. Mansfield. and D. Sanders. 1998. Guard cell cation channels are involved in Na+ induced stomata closure in a halophyte. Plant J.14: 509-521.

Vivas, A., A. Marulanda, J. M. Ruiz-Lozano, J. M. Barea. and R. Azcon. 2003. Influence of a Bacillus sp. on physiological activities of two arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and on plant responses to PEG-induced drought stress. J. Mycorrhiza. 13: 249–256.

Wang, X., C. J. Summers. and Z. L. Wang. 2004. Large-scale hexagonal-patterned growth of aligned ZnO nano rods for nano-optoelectronics and nano sensor arrays. Nano Letters. 4(3): 423–426.

Yano-melo, A. M., J. D. Saggin, C. Maiasp. and C. V. Pacovan.2003. Tolerance of mycorrhized banana (Musa plantets) to saline stress. J. Agric. Eco-Sys. Environ. 95: 343-348.

Zarrouk, O., Y. Gogorcena, J. Gomez-Aparisi, J. A. Betran, M. A. Moreno. 2005. Influence of Almond peach hybrids root stocks on flower and leaf mineral concentration, yield, vigour of two peach cultivars. J. Scientia Horticulturae. 106: 502-514.

Zheng, Y., Z. Wang, X. Sun, A. Jia, G. Jiang. and Z. Li. 2008. Higher salinity tolerance cultivars of winter wheat relieved senescence at reproductive stage. Environ. Exp. Bot. 62: 129–138.

Zhongqunlle, H., H. Chaoxing, Z. Zhi Bin, Z. Zhi Rong. and W. Huaisong. 2007. Changes of anti oxidative enzymes and cell membrane osmosis in tomato colonized by arbuscular mycorrhiza under NaCl stress. Colloids and Surfaces B: Bionterfaces. 27: 10-25.

Zozi, T., I. Fábio Steiner, D. Rubens Fey. 2012. Response of wheat to foliar application of zinc. Ciencia Rural. Santa Maria. 42(5): 784-787.