Impact of Titanium on Growth and Forage Production of Maize (Zea mays L.) under Different Growth Stage


Department of Agronomy, Varamin-Pishva Branch, Islamic Azad University, Varamin, Iran.


This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of titanium dioxide and titanium oxide foliar application during two growing stage on growth and forage production of maize during 2012 growing season in the research farm of Islamic Azad University of Varamin-Pishva Branch. The experimental design was randomized complete blocks arranged in factorial with four replications. The factors were included two growing stages i.e. four leafy stage and stem elongation for titanium application and five titanium concentration and sources including control (water) titanium oxide (Bulk) and three concentrations of 0.01, 0.02 and 0.03% of titanium dioxide nanoparticles. The results showed that titanium dioxide nanoparticle especially at stem elongation stage increased plant growth and dry matter accumulation in maize plant. Although, titanium oxide (bulk) had positive effect on biological yield, titanium dioxide nanoparticle produced the highest forage yield. In addition, among different concentrations of titanium dioxide nanoparticle, application 0.02% significantly improved plant growth; dry matter and final forage yield so that it can be recommended to earning more forage. 


Acikgoz, E. 1991. Yem Bitkileri. Uludag University. Department of Agronomy. Turkey. p. 153.

Alcaraz, C. F., J. L. Gimenez, A. Moreno, J. L. Fuentes. and F. Martinez Sanchez. 1990. Effects of Fe and Ti on yield and fruit quality of Capsicum annuum L. plants. In Proc. XXIII. Intl. Hort. Cong. Vol. 2. 3359. Firenze. Italy.

Carvajal, M. F., F. Martinez-Sanchez. and C. F. Alcaraz. 1994. Effect of Ti (IV) on some physiological activity indicators of Capsicum anuum L. plants. J. Hortic. Sci. 69: 427-432.

Carvajal, M. and C. F. Alcaraz. 1995. Effect of Ti (IV) on Fe activity in Capsicum annuum. Phyto-chemistry.J. 39: 977–980.

Carvajal, M. and C. F. Alcaraz. 1998. Titanium as a beneficial element for Capsicum annuum L. plants, in Recent Research Developments in Phyto-chemistry. Vol. 2. Part I. Ed by Pandalai SG. Research Signpost. Trivandrum. pp: 83–94.

Chao, S. H. L. and H.S. Choi. 2005. Method for providing enhanced photosynthesis. Korea Res. Institute. Chemical Tech. Jeonju. South Korea. Bulletin. 10 pp.

FAO-STAT. 2005. Production of cereals and share in world.

Available at: yearbook/vol_1_1/pdf/b01.pdf

Kara, S. M. 2001. Evaluation of yield and yield components in inbred maize lines. I. heterosis and line x tester analysis of combining ability. Turk J. Agric. 25: 383-391.

Kurepa, J, T. Paunesku, S. Vogt, H. Arora, B. M. Rabatic, J. Lu, M. B. Wanzer, G. E. Woloschak. and J. A. Smalle. 2010. Uptake and distribution of ultrasmall anatase TiO2 in Arabidopsis thaliana. Nano Letter. J. 10(7): 2296–2302.

Lin, D. and B. Xing 2008. Root uptake and phytotoxicity of ZnO nanoparticles. Environ. Sci. Tech. J. 42(15): 5580-5585.

Nand, R., M. Verloo. and A. Cottenie. 1983. Response of bean to foliar spray of titanium. Plant and Soil. J. 73: 285-290.

Pais, I. 1983. The biological importance of titanium. J. Plant Nutr. 6: 3-131.

Pais, I., M. Feher, E. Farkas, Z. Szabo. and I. Cornides. 1977. Titanium as a new trace element. J. Comm. Soil Sci. Plant Anal. 8: 407–410.

Pais, I., M. Feher. and E. Farkas. 1979. Role of titanium in the life of plants. Acta Agron. Acad. Sci. J. Hung. 28: 378-383.

Roth, G., D. Undersander, M. Allen, S. Ford, J. Harrison. and C. Hunt. 1995. Corn Silage Production, Management, and Feeding. ASA. Madison. WI. NCR574. USA.

Ruffini-Castiglione, M. and R. Cremonini. 2009. Nanoparticles and higher plants. Caryologia. J. 62:161-165.

Simon, L., A. Balogh. and F. Hajdu. 1988. Effect of titanium on growth and photosynthetic pigment composition of Chlorella pyrenoidosa (Green alga). Effect of titanium ascorbate on pigment content and chlorophyll metabolism of Chlorella. New results in the research of hardly known trace elements and their role in the food. In: Chain, I. Pais, Ed. University of Horticultural and Food Science. Budapest. p. 87-101.

Zheng, L., F. Hong, S. Lu. and C. Liu. 2005 Effect of nano-TiO2 on strength of naturally aged seeds and growth of spinach. Biol. Trace Elem. Res. J. 105: 83–91.

Zhu, H., J. Han, J. Q. Xiao. and Y. Jin. 2008. Uptake, translocation, and accumulation of manufactured iron oxide nanoparticles by pumpkin plants. J. Environ. Monitoring. 10: 713-717.