Study of Different Fertilization Methods on Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis) Vegetative Factors


1 Date Palm and Tropical Fruits Research Center, Horticultural Sciences Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Ahvaz, Iran.

2 Young Researchers and Elite Club, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, Iran.


Oil palm propagation techniques are juvenile pot plants derived from germinated seeds and tissue culture, because it doesn’t produce sucker. In the nursery stage, monitoring the conditions of irrigation and nutrition are important to ensure phenotypic quality. During the nursery stage, optimal fertilization in development of more vigorous and productive plants. This research was carried out to increase fertilizer use efficiency and its impact on vegetative growth of juvenile oil palm plants in greenhouse based Factorial experiment according completely randomized design with three replications at greenhouse of date palm and tropical fruit research institute in Ahvaz during 2011-2013. Treatments included five different fertilization methods (Without fertilization or control, soil application, fertigation, foliar spray and soil application add foliar spray on juvenile pot plants derived from germinated oil palm seeds) and eight genotypes. The results showed that different methods of fertilization were significantly different in vegetative growth characteristics. Also, different cultivars were significantly different in all vegetative traits except chlorophyll content. Interactions between treatments were significant in the growth characteristics of stem and number of leaves (P≤0.05). Fertigation with mean seedling height, stem height, stem diameter, leaf length and width, equivalent to 138.9, 26.0, 7.3, 126.5 and 40.6 cm, respectively and the average number of leaves and leaflets of 11.9 and 44.6 numbers per plant respectively and chlorophyll content of 55.3 was superior fertilization method comparing to other methods. 


Al-Kharusi, L. M, M. O. Elmardi, A. Ali, F. A. Al-Said, K. M. Abdelbasit, S. Al-Rawahy. 2009. Effect of mineral and organic fertilizers on the chemical characteristics and quality of date fruits. Intl. J. Agri. Biol. 3: 290-296.

Al-Qurashi, A. D., M. A. Awad. and S. M. Ismail. 2016. Yield, fruit quality and nutrient uptake of ‘Nabbut-Ahmar’ date palm grown in sandy loam soil as affected by NPK fertigation. J. Plant Nutr. 39(2): 268-278.

Antia-Obong E. A. and K. R. Bhattarai. 2012. Growth trend and source of output growth for oil palm and groundnut production in Nigeria (1961-2007). Trend in Agricultural Economics. 5(3): 96-103.

Bamiftah, M. A. O. 2000. Effect of potassium fertilization and bunch thinning on the yield and the annual of leaves and flower clusters of zahgloul date palms. Res. Report. Horticulture Section. Agricultural Research Center. Hadhramout Governorate. Yemen. 15: 134-141.

Caliman, J. P., E. Togatorop, B. Martha. and R. Samosir. 2002. Aerial fertilization of oil palm. Better Crops Intl. J. 16(2): 10-14.

Corley, R. and P. Tinker. 2003. The oil palm. 4th Ed. Black Well Science, Oxford Pub. UK.

Daneshnia, A. 2000. Evaluation effect of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium on palm yield (Shahani genotype) by using drip irrigation method. Research Report. Education and Extension Organization of Iran. No: 16/79/355. pp: 44. (Abstract in English)

Dialami, H. 2009. Effect of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers on date palm, cultivar Sayer. Res. Report. Agric. Res. Education and Extension Organization. Iran.

Fatehy, H. 2004. Nutrients requirements of date palm and fertilizer use. Regional Workshop on Date Palm Development in the Arabian Peninsula. 29-31 May. Abu Dhabi, UAE. pp: 278-286.

Foster, H. L. 2003. Assessment of oil palm fertilizer requirements. In: Oil Palm: Management for Large and sustainable yields (Fairhurst, T. and R. Hardter). Potash and Phosphate Institute, Potash and Phosphate Institute Canada and Int. Potash Inst. Singapore: 231-257.

Goh, K. J., B. H. Tee. and A. R. Anuar. 2000. Applicability of precision farming for oil palm plantations in Malaysia. In: Seminar on Precision Farming. 16 October. Univ. Pertanian Malaysia, Agric. Institute of Malaysia.

Goh, K. J. 2005. Fertilizer recommendation systems for oil palm: estimating the fertiliser rates. In: Proceedings of MOSTA Best Practices Workshops –Agronomy and Crop Management(Chew, P.S. and Tan, Y.P., Ed), Malaysian Oil Scientists and Technologists Association (MOSTA): 235-268.

Hebbar, S. S., B. K. Ramachandrappa, H. V. Nanjappa. and M. Prabhakar. 2004. Studies on NPK drip fertigation in field grown tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). European Journal of Agronomy. 21: 117-127.

Ibia, T. O., G. S. Effiong, P. I. Ogban. and J. C. Obi. 2009. Relationship between Phosphorus Forms and Parent Materials in Soils of Southeastern Nigeria. Acta Agronomica Nigeriana. J. 8(2): 104-112.

Jacquemard, J. CH., B. Talliez, K. Dadang, M. Ouvrier. and H. Asmady. 2002. Oil palm nutrition: planting material effect. Intl. Oil Palm Conf. and Exhibition. 8-12 July. IOPRI. Bali. Indonesia.

Kee, K. K. and K. J. Goh. 2006. Efficient fertilizer management for higher productivity and sustainability in oil palm production. Intl. Planters Conf. on Higher Productivity and Efficient Practices for Sustainable Plantation Agric. Kuala Lumpur. Malaysia. pp: 157-182.

Khaw, C. H., S. K. Ng. and K. C. Thong. 2000. Commercial production of clonal oil palms by tissues culture. Proc. PORIM Intl. Palm Oil Conf. pp: 37-43.

Lam, M. K., T. T. Kok, K. T. LEE. and M. Abdul Rahman. 2009. Malaysian palm oil: Surviving the food versus fuel dispute for a sustainable future. Renewal and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 13: 1456-1464.

Lim, K. H., B. Silek. and J. M. HII. 2003. Trials on fertilizer protection under high rainfall conditions. Intl. Cong. Palm Oil: The Power-House for the Global Oils and Fats Economy-Agric. Malaysian Palm Oil Board. Kuala Lumpur. Malaysia. pp: 899-916.

Melling, L., R. Hatano. and K. J. Goh. 2006. Short-term effect of urea on CH4 flux under the oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) on tropical peat land in Sarawak, Malaysia. Soil Sci. Plant Nutr. J. 52: 788-792.

Mite, F., M. Carrillo. and J. Espinosa. 1999. Fertilizer Use Efficiency in Oil Palm is Increased under Irrigation in Ecuador. Better Crops Intl. J. 13(1): 30-32.

Morsi, M. E. 2009. Response of date palm sweet cv. grown in new reclaimed to organic and inorganic nitrogen sources. Fayoum J. Agric. Res. Dev. 33: 160-172.

National Research Development Corporation (NRDC). 2003. Palm Oil: A Government of India Enterprise 20-22. Zamroodpur Community Center Kailash Colony Extension, New Delhi. 110048, India.

Neena, C. and J. S. Chandel. 2008. Effect of fertigation on growth, yield, fruit quality and fertilizer-use efficiency of Kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa). The Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 78(5): 8-20.

Noor, O. A., H. G. Amir, Ch. Lai Ken. and A. R. Othman. 2003. Influence of various combinations of diazotrophs and chemical N fertilizer on plant growth and N2 fixation capacity of oil palm seedlings (Elaeis guineensis). Thai J. Agric. Sci. 42(3): 139-149.

Obi, J. C., G. E. Akinbola, A. O. Ogunkunle. and A. O. Umeojiakor. 2010. Profile Distribution of Clay, Ca, Mg and K in Some Soils of the Savanna Region of Nigeria. J. Tropical Agric. Food Environ. Extension. 9(2): 76-83.

Obi, J. C. and B. Thomas Udoh. 2012. Nutrient budget for optimal oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis) yield on coastal plain sands soils of Akwa Ibom State Nigeria. Open Journal of Soil Science. 2: 289-298.

Rahnama, A. A., M. A. Abdol. and H. Mohebi. 2012. Study of the different irrigation and fertilization levels effects on fruit set and yield of tissue cultured Barhee date palms. Intl J. Agri. Crop Sci. 4(22): 1666-1671.

Reijnders, L. and M. A. J. Huijbregts. 2008. Palm oil and the emission of carbon-based greenhouse gases. J. Cleaner Prod. 16(4): 477-482.

Simon, S., L. Domanic, A. Michael. and S. W. Chang. 2001. An update of yield performance of clonal oil palm (Elaeis guineesis) plantings in PPB oil palm Bhd. Sabah. Paper Presented in Seminar in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah. Incorporated Soc. Planters. Kuala Lumpur. Malaysia

Ukwuteno, S. O., E. C. Okorji. and H. I. Opaluwa. 2015. Determination of economic optimum replacement age of oil palm in Kogi State, Nigeria. Intl. J. Forest, Soil and Erosion. 5(3): 57-61.

Wicke, B., V. Dornburg, M. Junqinger. and A. Faaij. 2008. Different palm oil production systems for energy purposes and their greenhouse gas implications. Biomass and Bioenergy. J. 32: 1322-1337.

Zaharah, A. R., M. H. A. Husni. and A. S. N Akmar. 2012. Evaluation of nitrogen uptake efficiency of different oil Palm genotypes using 15N isotope labeling method. Pertanika J. Tropical Agric. Sci. 35(4): 743–754.

Zin, Z. Z., S. F. Foong, N. Jamaludin, C. T. Lee, A. B. Hamdan, A. M. Tarmizi. and H. Khalid. 2001. Evaluation of various sources of phosphate fertilizers for mature oil palm in Peninsular Malaysia. Intl. Palm Oil Congress on Cutting-Rdge Technologies for Sustained Competitiveness. Malaysian Palm Oil Board. Kuala Lumpur. Malaysia. pp: 272-281.

Zin, Z. Z. and A. M. Tarmizi. 2007. Efficient use of urea as nitrogen fertilizer for mature oil palm in Malaysia. MPOB Information Series. pp: 362.