Feasibility Study on Reducing Lead and Cadmium Absorption in Sweet Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) With Using Active Carbon

Authors

1 Department of Agronomy, Karaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Iran.

2 Department of Marine Science and Technology, North Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

3 Department of Agronomy, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, Iran.

Abstract

In order to reducing the risk of heavy metals concentration in plant tissues which are among the edible plants by human, find the active carbon ability in heavy metals removal from Lead (Pb) and Cadmium (Cd) contaminated soils and its effect on growth and nutrient absorption of Sweet basil, this greenhouse experiment was conducted in the faculty of agriculture, Islamic Azad University, Karaj branch, Iran. The experiment was conducted in factorial in the form of a completely randomized design with four replications and three treatments: different levels of active carbon (0. 5, 10, 15 and 20 g.kg-1 soil), Lead (0 and 4 g.kg-1 soil) and Cadmium (0 and 0.08 g.kg-1 soil). Results showed that active carbon significantly affected the sweet basil trials. It was observed that the Pb and Cd absorption was reduced in soil contaminated with heavy metal when active carbon was applied. The optimum results were obtained through the application of active carbon in 20 g.kg-1 soil treatment. Totally, our results showed that active carbon could improve the basil growth in heavy metal contaminated soil by inhibition of Pb and Cd translocation into the plant tissues. Moreover, it was found that Sweet basil has a high ability in heavy metals removals in polluted regions.

Keywords


Alloway, B. J. 1995. Heavy metals in soils. Springer Science and Business Media. 117 pp.

Badmus, M., T. Audu. and B. Anyata. 2007. Removal of lead ion from industrial wastewaters by activated carbon prepared from periwinkle shells (Typanotonus fuscatus). Turkish J. Eng. Environ. Sci. 31: 251-263.

Bansal, R. C., J. B. Donnet, F. Stoeckli. and M. Dekker. 1988. Active carbon. Newyork. 482 pp.

Bansal, R. C. and M. Goyal. 2005. Activated carbon adsorption: CRC Press. 520 pp.

Boonamnuayvitaya, V., C. Chaiya, W. Tanthapanichakoon. and S. Jarudilokkul. 2004. Removal of heavy metals by adsorbent prepared from pyrolyzed coffee residues and clay. Separation and Purification Technology. J. 35: 11-22.

Das, P., S. Samantaray. and G. Rout. 1997. Studies on cadmium toxicity in plants: A review. Environ. Pollution. J. 98: 29-36.

Diasa, M. J., M. C. M. Alvim-Ferraza, M. F. Almeidaa, J. Rivera-Utrillab. and M. Sánchez-Polo. 2007. Waste materials for activated carbon preparation and its use in aqueous-phase treatment: A review. J. Environ. Manag. 85: 833-846.

Garbisu, C. and I. Alkorta. 2003. Basic concepts on heavy metal soil bioremediation. Europ. J. Mineral Processing Environ. Protection. 3: 58-66.

Godt, J., F. Scheidig, C. Grosse-Siestrup, V. Esche, P. Brandenburg, A. Reich. and D. A. Groneberg. 2006. The toxicity of cadmium and resulting hazards for human health. J. Occup Med. Toxicol. 1: 1-6.

Goel, J., K. Kadirvelu, C. Rajagopal. and V. K. Garg. 2005. Removal of lead (II) by adsorption using treated granular activated carbon: batch and column studies. J. Hazardous Materials. 125: 211-220.

Grayer, R. J., G. C. Kite, F. J. Goldstone, S. E. Bryan, A. Paton. and E. Putievsky. 1996. Infraspecific taxonomy and essential oil chemotypes in sweet basil, Ocimum basilicum. Phytochemistry. J. 43: 1033-1039.

Halim, M., P. Conte. and A. Piccolo. 2003. Potential availability of heavy metals to phytoextraction from contaminated soils induced by exogenous humic substances. Chemosphere. J. 52: 265-275.

Hornok, L. 1992. Cultivation and processing of medicinal plants: John Wiley and Sons Pub. 117 pp.

Järup, L. 2003. Hazards of heavy metal contamination. British Medical Bulletin. 68: 167-182.

Joner, E. and C. Leyval. 1997. Uptake of 109 Cd by roots and hyphae of a Glomus mosseae/Trifolium subterraneum mycorrhiza from soil amended with high and low concentrations of cadmium. New Phytologist. J. 135: 353-360.

Kabata-Pendias, A. 2010. Trace elements in soils and plants: CRC press. 111 pp.

Kadirvelu, K. and C. Namasivayam. 2003. Activated carbon from coconut coirpith as metal adsorbent: adsorption of Cd (II) from aqueous solution. Adv. Environ. Res. J. 7: 471-478.

Kopittke, P. M., C. J. Asher, R. A. Kopittke. and N. W. Menzies. 2007. Toxic effects of Pb2+ on growth of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.). Environ. Pollution. J. 150: 280-287.

Krupa, Z. and M. Moniak. 1998. The stage of leaf maturity implicates the response of the photosynthetic apparatus to cadmium toxicity. Plant Sci. J. 138: 149-156.

Kumar, P. N., V. Dushenkov, H. Motto. and I. Raskin. 1995. Phytoextraction: the use of plants to remove heavy metals from soils. Environ. Sci. Tech. J. 29: 1232-1238.

Lagriffoul, A., B. Mocquot, M. Mench. and J. Vangronsveld. 1998. Cadmium toxicity effects on growth, mineral and chlorophyll contents, and activities of stress related enzymes in young maize plants (Zea mays L.). Plant and Soil. J. 200: 241-250.

Lewinsohn, E., I. Ziv-Raz, N. Dudai, Y. Tadmor, E. Lastochkin, O. Larkov, D. Chaimovitsh, U. Ravid, E. Putievsky. and E. Pichersky. 2000. Biosynthesis of estragole and methyl-eugenol in sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L), developmental and chemotypic association of allylphenol O-methyltransferase activities. Plant Sci. J. 160: 27-35.

Liu, D., W. Jiang, C. Liu, C. Xin. and W. Hou. 2000. Uptake and accumulation of lead by roots, hypocotyls and shoots of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.). Bio-Res. Tech. J. 71: 273-277.

McIntyre, T. 2003. Phytoremediation of heavy metals from soils. In: Phytoremediation. Springer Pub. pp: 97-123.

Nilsen, E. T. and D. M. Orcutt. 1996. Physiology of plants under stress. Vol. 1: Abiotic Factors 2nd Edition. John Wiley and Sons. Pub. Newyork. USA. 673 pp.

Pilon-Smits, E. and M. Pilon. 2002. Phytoremediation of metals using transgenic plants. Critical reviews in plant sciences. 21: 439-456.

Pivetz, B. E. 2001. Phytoremediation of contaminated soil and ground water at hazardous waste sites: United States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response: Superfund Technology Support Center for Ground Water, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Subsurface Protection and Remediation Division, Robert S. Kerr Environmental Research Center.

Putievsky, E. and B. Galambosi. 1999. Production systems of sweet basil. Basil: the genus Ocimum/toim. Raimo Hiltunen ja Yvonne Holm. ISBN: 9789057024320.

Rao, M. M., D. Ramana, K. Seshaiah, M. Wang. and S. C. Chien. 2009. Removal of some metal ions by activated carbon prepared from Phaseolus aureus hulls. J. Hazardous Materials. 166: 1006-1013.

Rao, M. M., A. Ramesh, G.P.C. Rao. and K. Seshaiah. 2006. Removal of copper and cadmium from the aqueous solutions by activated carbon derived from Ceiba pentandra hulls. J. Hazardous Materials. 129: 123-129.

Ricordel, S., S. Taha, I. Cisse. and G. Dorange. 2001. Heavy metals removal by adsorption onto peanut husks carbon: characterization, kinetic study and modeling. Separation Purification Tech. J. 24: 389-401.

Rodríguez-Reinoso, F. 1997. Activated carbon: Structure, characterization, preparation and applications. In: Marsh, H., Heintz, E.A., Rodríguez-Reinoso, F. (Eds.) Introduction to Carbon Technologies, pp: 35–101. Universidad de Alicante, Alicante.

Sandalio, L., H. Dalurzo, M. Gomez, M. RomeroPuertas. L. and Del Rio. 2001. Cadmium‐induced changes in the growth and oxidative metabolism of pea plants. Journal of experimental botany 52:2115-2126.

Sharma, P. and R. S. Dubey. 2005. Lead toxicity in plants. Brazilian J. Plant Physiol. 17: 35-52.

Shu, X., L. Yin, Q. Zhang. and W. Wang. 2012. Effect of Pb toxicity on leaf growth, antioxidant enzyme activities, and photosynthesis in cuttings and seedlings of Jatropha curcas L. Environ. Sci. Pollution Res. J. 19: 893-902.

Van Aken, B. 2008. Transgenic plants for phytoremediation: helping nature to clean up environmental pollution. Trends in Biotech. J. 26: 225-227.

Van Hulle, S., W. Audenaert, B. Decostere, J. Hogie. and P. Dejans. 2008. Sustainable wastewater treatment of temporary events: the Dranouter Music Festival case study.

Zheljazkov, V. D., L. E. Craker. and B. Xing. 2006. Effects of Cd, Pb and Cu on growth and essential oil contents in dill, peppermint, and basil. Environ. Exp. Bot. J. 58: 9-16.