Effect of Organic and Chemical Fertilizers on Growth Parameters and Essential Oil of Iranian Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.)


Medicinal Plants Department, Shahrekord Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shahrekord, Iran.


Basil belongs to the Lamiaceae family, is one of the most important aromatic and medicinal plants, which it widely cultivated in many countries. The areal parts, especially leaves of sweet basil are widely used to enhance the flavor of foods such as salads, pasta, tomato products, vegetables, pizza, meat, soups, marine foods, confectioneries and other products. This study was conducted to investigate the response of basil to different fertilizers (chemical and organic). Treatments consisted of different fertilizers including: F1=C (Control, without any fertilization), F2= CM (Cow manure 20 t.ha−1), F3=CM+CF (Cow manure 20 t.ha−1 + chemical fertilizers), F4= CM+CF (Cow manure 10 t.ha−1+ chemical fertilizers), F5=CF (Chemical fertilizers, N.P.K), F6= VC (Vermicompost). This experiment conducted on randomized complete block design with three replications in Saman city, Southwestern Iran. Morphological traits and essential oil yield of the aerial parts of sweet basil (O. basilicum) were studied. From the results, it can be concluded that the application of different fertilizers has an influence on morphological traits, essential oil yield of the aerial parts of sweet basil. The highest values for plant height and dry weight (kg.ha-1), were observed with application CM (cow manure 20 t.ha−1), CM+ CF (cow manure 20 t.ha−1 + chemical fertilizers), respectively. Among different fertilizer, the essential oil yield exhibited the greatest amount in CM+ CF treatment. In finally, the application of integrated manures mixture of organic (cow manure) and chemical fertilizer (20 t.ha-1) can cause to improvement dry matter yield and essential oil content in sweet basil. 


Abd El-Gawad, M. H. 2001. Response of coriander plants to some fertilization treatments. M.Sc. Thesis. Faculty of Agriculture. Minia Univ. 120 P.

Akbarnejad, F., A. Astarayy, A. Fetvot. and M. Nasiri Mahlati. 2010. Effect of MSW compost and sewage sludge on yield and concentration of lead, nickel and cadmium in soil and medicinal plant Nigella (Nigella sativa L.). J. Agric. Ecol. 2: 600-608.

Al-Fraihat, A. H., S. Y. A. Al-dalain, Z. B. Al-Rawashdeh, M. S. Abu-Darwish. and J. A. Al-Tabbal. 2011. Effect of organic and bio fertilizers on growth, herb yield and volatile oil of marjoram plant grown in Ajloun region, Jordan. J. Medicinal Plants Res. 5(13): 2822–2833.

Alves, E. U., A. P. De Oliveira, R. Bruno, A. R. Sader. and A. U. Alves. 2005. Yield and physiological quality of coriander seeds cultivated with manure and mineral fertilizer. Revista Brasileira de Sementes. Associacao Brasileira de Tecnologia de Sementes (ABRATES). 27(1): 132- 137.

Amran, K. A. A. 2013. Physiological studies on Pelargonium graveolens L plant. Ph.D. Thesis. Faculty of Agriculture. Moshtohor. Benha. Univ. Egypt. 115 p.

Arancon, N. Q., C. A. Edwards, R. Atiyeh. and J. D. Metzger. 2004. Effects of vermicomposts produced from food waste on the growth and yields of greenhouse peppers. Bio-Resource Tech. J. 93: 139-144.

Carovic-Stanko, K., S. Orlic, O. Politeo, F. Strikic, I. Kolak, M. Milos. and Z. Satovic. 2010. Composition and antibacterial activities of essential oils of seven Ocimum taxa. Food Chem. J. 119: 196–201.

Darzi, M. T., A. Ghalavand, F. Sefidkon. and F. Rajaie. 2008. Effect of mycorrhiza, vermicompost and phosphate on the quantity and quality of biological medicinal plant essential oil of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.). J. Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Res. 24: 396-413.

Dinesh, R., V. Srinivasan, S. Hamja. and A. Mahjusha. 2010. Short term incorporation of organic manures and fertilizers influences biochemicals and microbial characteristics of soils under an annual crop turmeric. Bio-Resource Tech. J. 101(12): 4697-702.

Edris, A. E., A. Shalaby. and H. M. Fadel. 2003. Effect of organic agriculture practices on the volatile aroma components of some essential oil plants grown in Egypt II: Sweet marjoram (Origanum marjorana L.) essential oil. Flavour and Fragrance J. 18(4): 345-351.

El-Gendy, S. A., A. M. Hosni, S. S. Ahmed. and R. M. Sabri. 2001. Sweet basil (Ocimumbasilicum L.) productivity under different organic fertilization and inter-plant spacing levels in a newly reclaimed land in Egypt. Annals Agric. Sci. Ain Shams Univ. 46(1): 319-338.

El-Sayed, A. A., M. A. Sidky. and M. A. Mohesn. 2002. Response of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) to different chemical and organic fertilization treatments. J. Agric. Sci. Mansoura Univ. 28(2): 1401-1418.

Freire, C. M. M., M. O. M. Marques. and M. Costa. 2006. Effects of seasonal variation on the central nervous system activity of Ocimum gratissimum L. essential oil. J Ethnopharmacol. 105: 161–166.

Ghasemi Pirbalouti, A. 2014. Diversity in chemical composition and yield of essential oil from two Iranian landraces of sweet basil. Genetika. J. 46: 419–426.

Ghasemi Pirbalouti, A., E. Mahdad. and L. Craker. 2013a. Effects of drying methods on qualitative and quantitative properties of essential oil of two basil landraces. Food Chem. J. 141: 2440–2449.

Ghasemi Pirbalouti, A., M. Barani, B. Hamedi, M. Ataei Kachouei. and A. Karimi. 2013b. Environment effect on diversity in quality and quantity of essential oil of different wild populations of Kerman thyme. Genetika. J. 45: 441-450.

Halajnia, A., G. H. Haghnia, A. Fotovat. and R. Khorasani. 2007. Effect of organic matter on phosphorus availability in calcareous soils. J. Sci. Tech. Agric. Nat. Res. 10: 121-133. (Abstract in English)

Haque, A. 2012. Effect of different organic manures on growth and yield of cabbage. M.Sc. Thesis. Department of Horticulture, Patuakhali Science and Technology University (PSTU). Dumki. Patuakhali. Bangladesh. pp: 1–73.

Hatwar, G. P., S. U. Gondane, S. M. Urkude. and O. V. Gahukar. 2003. Effect of micronutrients on growth and yield of chili. Soils Crops. J. 13: 123–125.

Hussain, M. A. 2002. Effect of some agriculture treatments on growth and chemical composition of Majorana hortensis plants. M.Sc. Thesis. Faculty of Agriculture Minia Univ. 121 pp.

IRIMO. 2012. Islamic Republic of Iran Meteorological Organization. Climatology methods. Available in: http://www.irimo.ir.

Jacoub, R. W. 1999. Effect of some organic and non-organic fertilizers on growth, oil yield and chemical composition of Ocimum basilicum, L. and Thymus vulgaris, L. plants. Ph.D. Thesis. Faculty of Agriculture. Cairo Univ. Egypt. 117 pp.

Kandeel, A. M., S. A. T. Naglaa. and A. A. Sadek. 2002. Effect of biofertilizers on the growth, volatile oil yield and chemical composition of Ocimum basilicum L. plant. Ann. Agric. Sci. Cairo. J. 47(1): 351-371.

KeshavarzAfshar, R., M. R. Chaichi, M. H. Assareh, M. Hashemi. and A. Liaghat. 2014. Interactive effect of deficit irrigation and soil organic amendments on seed yield and flavonolignan production of milk thistle (Silybum marianum L. Gaertn.) Industrial Crops and Prod. J. 58: 166–172.

Kilande, B. G., J. S. Tenywa, M. Rwakaikara-Silver. and A. Amoding-Katushabe. 2011. Agronomic evaluation of cattle manures for cabbage production: animal gender and physiological conditions. Nepalese J. Agric. Sci. 9: 76-89.

Koeduka, T., E. Fridman, D. R. Gang, D. G. Vassao, B. L. Jackson, I. Koshorlova, S. M. Spassova, N. G. Lewis, J. P. Noel, T. J. Baiga, N. Dudareva. and E. Pichersky. 2006. Eugenol and isoeugenol, characteristic aromatic constituents of spices, are biosynthesized via reduction of a coniferyl alcohol ester. PNAS. J. 103: 10128-10133.

Kozera, W., E. Majcherczak. and B. Barczak. 2013. Effect of varied NPK fertilization on the yield size, content of essential oil and mineral composition of caraway fruit (Carumcarvi L.). J. Elementary. 18: 255–267.

Liuc, J. and B. Pank. 2005. Effect of vermi compost and fertility levels on growth and oil yield of Roman chamomile: Scientia Pharmaceutica. J. 46: 63-69.

Louise, F. R., E. B. P. P. Jose. and D. S. B. Renata. 2009. Biomass production and essential oil of Plectranthus neochilus Schlechter cultured in field under increasing doses of organic manure. Appl. Res. Agri. Tech. 2(2): 69-74.

Makri, O. and S. Kintzios. 2007. Ocimum sp. (basil): Botany, cultivation, pharmaceutical properties, and biotechnology. J. Herbs Spices Med Plants. 13: 123–150.

Moradi, R. 2009. Evaluation of biological and organic fertilizers on yield, yield components and essential oil content of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare). MSc. Thesis. Ferdowsi Univ. Mashhad. Iran. 121 pp. (Abstract in English)

Naga, N. M. H. 2004. Physiological studies on (Foeniculum vulgare Mill) and (Carumcarvi L.). M.Sc. Thesis. Faculty of Agriculture. Tanta. Univ. 118 pp.

Naguib, N. Y. M. 2011. Organic vs chemical fertilization of medicinal plants: a concise review of researches. Adv. Environ. Biol. J. 5(2): 394-400.

Pandey, V. and D. Patra. 2015. Crop productivity, aroma profile and antioxidant activity in Pelargonium graveolens L. Her. under integrated supply of various organic and chemical fertilizers. Industrial Crops Prod. J. 67: 257–263.

Putievsky, E. and B. Galambosi. 1999. Production systems of sweet basil. In Basil: The Genus Ocimum; Hiltunen R, Holm Y, Eds.; Harwood Academic Pub. Amsterdam. Netherlands. pp: 39-65.

Roy, S. S. and J. K. Hore. 2010. Vermiculture can be practiced in all plantation crops. A report of Department of Spices and Plantation Crops, Faculty of Horticulture, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya. Nadia. West Bengal. pp: 20-39.

Shalaby, M. E. and M. F. El-Nady. 2008. Application of Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a biocontrol agent against Fusarium infection of sugar beet plants. Acta Biologica Szegediensis. J. 52(2): 271-275.

Sharafzadeh, S. and K. Ordookhani. 2011. Organic and bio fertilizers as a good substitute for inorganic fertilizers in medicinal plants farming. Aust. J. Basic Appl. Sci. 5(12): 1330-1333.

Suppakul, P., J. Miltz, K. Sonneveld. and S. W. Bigger. 2003. Antimicrobial properties of basil and its possible application in food packaging. J. Agric. Food Chem. 51: 3197–3207.

Yadav, J. S. P. 2003. Managing soil health for sustained high productivity. J. Indian Soc. Soil Sci. 51(4): 448-465.

Yazdani Buick, R., P. Rezvan Moghaddam, H. R. Khazaee. and A. S. Astaraee. 2010. Evaluation of quantitative and qualitative characteristics of medicinal plants SM (Silybum marianum L.) in response to organic fertilizers, chemical and biological. J. Agric. Ecol. 2: 548-555.

Zheljazkov, V. D. and P. R. Warman. 2004. Source separated municipal solid waste compost application to Swiss chard and basil. J. Environ. Qual. 33: 542-552.