Effects of Rhizobium– Mycorrhizae Symbiosis and Foliar Application of Urea on Some Traits of Soybean

Document Type : main article


1 Department of Agriculture, Payame Nour University, Tehran, Iran.

2 Department of Agronomy, Ghaemshahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ghaemshahr, Iran.

3 Department of Agronomy, Varamin Branch, Islamic Azad University, Varamin, Iran.


In order to investigate the effect of rhizobium bacteria, mycorrhiza fungi and foliar application of urea on qualitative and quantitative traits of soybean an experiment was conducted based on randomized complete block design with four replications. The experiment included six treatments as: Control (C), Rhizobium bacteria (R), Rhizobium bacteria + Mycorrhiza fungi (R+M), Rhizobium bacteria + Foliar application of Urea (R+U), Rhizobium bacteria+ Mycorrhiza fungi + Foliar application of Urea (R+M+U), Foliar application of Urea (U). Results showed that the effect of rhizobium and mycorrhiza and foliar application of urea on grain yield and yield components of soybean was not significant, but their effect on grain protein, grain oil, and the number of grains per lateral pod was significant. Rhizobium- mycorrhiza symbiosis and foliar application of urea had significant effect on the rate of grain oil, protein, and yield increased number of grains per pod. Combined use of rhizobium, mycorrhiza, and foliar application of urea increased leaf area and the highest leaf area index belonged to rhizobium treatment (R) 80 days after planting and after that (R+U) treatment 90 days after planting. The highest rate of dry matter belonged to rhizobium treatment (R). Stem height, number of nodules, nodule dry weight, and root dry weight during the growth season increased similarly in all treatments. The highest stem height belonged to (R+M) treatment, the lowest stem height belonged to (C) treatment, the highest nodule dry weight and root dry weight belonged to (R) and (R+M+U) treatments, respectively and the lowest one belonged to (C) treatment.