Assessment Effects of Different Level of Amino Acid and Seaweed Extract on Growth Traits and Essence Components of Sweet Scented Geranium (Pelargonium graveolens L.)


1 MSc. Graduated, Department of Horticulture, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran.

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Horticulture, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran.


BACKGROUND: Sustainable agriculture today plays an important role in the utilization of organic matter and biofertilizers to eliminate or reducing chemical fertilizer, promoting fertility and preserving biological activities, enhancing the health of agricultural products and reducing environmental damage.
OBJECTIVES: Current research was conducted to assessment physiological characteristics of sweet scented geranium affected different seaweed extract and amino acid.
METHODS: This study was carried out in greenhouse research of Islamic Azad University of Isfahan Branch (Khorasgan) via factorail experiment based on completely randomized design with three replication. The main factor included four level of seaweed extract (S1= nonuse of seaweed extract or control, S2= 0.25, S3= 0.5, S4= 1 mg.l-1) and second factor consisted four level of amino acid (A1= nonuse of amino acid or control, A2= 1, A3= 1.5, A4= 2 mg.l-1). 
RESULT: Mean comparison result showed the increase of shoot dry weight by use of (15.8 g) in 0.5 mg.l-1 seaweed extract (15.8 gr) and 2 mg.l-1 amino acid (16 g). Interaction effect of treatment had significant and additive effect on vegetative traits such as plant height. The highest leaf greenness index was observed by 0.5 mg.l-1 seaweed extract with 2 mg.l-1 amino acid. Aromatic essence of current study included linalool, menthol, beta-citronellol, geraniol, cytonelin fumarate, beta-caryophylline, germacron, phenyl ethyl tiglate, geraniol tiglate was improved due to apply treatments. The highest beta-citronellol content was obtained of 1 mg.l-1 amino acid with nonuse of seaweed extract treatment.
CONCLUSION: Concentration of 2 mg.l-1 amino acid plus 1 and 1.5 mg.l-1 of seaweed extract achieved maximum quality and quantity of aromatic geranium.




Abdel-Mawgoud, A., A. Tantaway, M. M. Hafez. and H. A. Habib. 2010. Seaweed extract improves growth, yield and quality of different watermelon hybrids. Res. J. Agri. Biol. Sci. 6(2): 161-168.

Alam, M. Z., G. Braun, J. Norrie. and D. M. Hodges. 2013. Effect of Ascophyllum extract application on plant growth, fruit yield and soil microbial communities of strawberry. Can. J. Plant Sci. 93(1): 23-36.

Çamaş, N., C. Çirak. and E. Esendal. 2012. Seed yield, oil content and fatty acids composition of safflower (Carthamus Tinctorius L.) grown in Northern Turkey conditions. J. Fac. Agri. 22(1): 98-104.

Choulwar, S., R. Dhutmal, I. Madrap. and B. Joshi. 2005. Genetic variability for yield and yield related traits in F~ 2 population of Safflower. J. Maharashtra Agri. Univ. 30(1): 114-119.

Craigie, J. S. 2011. Seaweed Extract Stimuli, In: Plant science and agriculture. J. Appl. Phycology. 23(3): 371-393.

Darzi, M., A. Ghalavand, F. Rejali. and F. Sefidkon. 2007. Effects of biofertilizers application on yield and yield components in Fennel (Foeniculum Vulgare Mill.). Iranian J. Med. Aromatic Plants. 22(4): 276-292.

Del Pozo, A., P. Pérez, D. Gutiérrez, A. Alonso, R. Morcuende. and R. Martínez-Carrasco. 2007. Gas exchange acclimation to elevated Co2 in upper-sunlit and lower-shaded canopy leaves in relation to nitrogen acquisition and partitioning in wheat grown in field chambers. Environ. Exp. Bot. 59(3): 371-380.

Erulan, V., P. Soundarapandian, G. Thirumaran. and G. Ananthan. 2009. Studies on the effect of Sargassum Polycystum (C. Agardh, 1824) extract on the growth and biochemical composition of Cajanus Cajan (L.) Mill Sp. American-Eurasian J. Agri. Environ. Sci. 6(4): 392-399.

Geshnezjany, M. 2011. Effect of mixed foliar application of amino acids on morphological and physiological characteristics of Gerbera jamesonni L. MsC. Thesis. Shiraz University, Iran. (Abstract in English)

Kang, J. G. and M. W. Van Iersel. 2004. Nutrient solution concentration affects shoot: root ratio, leaf area ratio, and growth of Subirrigated salvia (Salvia Splendens). Hortscience. 39(1): 49-54.

Khan, W., U. P. Rayirath, S. Subramanian, M. N. Jithesh, P. Rayorath, D. M. Hodges, A. T. Critchley, J. S. Craigie, J. Norrie. and B. Prithiviraj. 2009. Seaweed extracts as biostimulants of plant growth and development. J. Plant Growth Regulation. 28(4): 386-399.

Kotnala, S., A. Garg. and A. Chatterji. 2009. Screening for the presence of antimicrobial activity in few Indian seaweeds. Pertanika J. Trop. Agri. Sci. 32(1): 69-75.

Lichtenthaler, H. and A. R. Wellburn. 1983. Determination of total carotenoids and chlorophylls a and b in leaf extracts in different solvents. Bio-Chem. Soc. Trans. J. 603: 591-592.

Mahfouz, S. and M. Sharaf-Eldin. 2007. Effect of mineral Vs. biofertilizer on growth, yield, and essential oil content of Fennel (Foeniculum Vulgare Mill.). Intl. Agrophysics. 21(4): 361-366.

Miller, D. M. 2002. The taxonomy of pelargonium species and cultivars, their origins and growth in the wild. Geranium and pelargonium: The Genera Geranium and pelargonium. Medicinal and Aromatic Plants: Industrial profiles. 27: 49-79.

Mithila, J., S. J. Murch, S. Krishnaraj. and P. K. Saxena. 2001. Recent advances in pelargonium in vitro regeneration systems. Plant Cell, Tissue Organ Culture. 67(1): 1-9.

Mortazavi, S. M., A. Tavakoli. M. Mohammadi. and H. K. Afsahi, 2015. Effect of superabsorbent on physiological traits and yield of wheat Azar 2 cultivar under dry farming condition. J. Agron. 33(1): 153-166. (Abstract in English)

Peterson, A., S. Machmudah, B. C. Roy, M. Goto, M. Sasaki. and T. Hirose. 2006. Extraction of essential oil from geranium (Pelargonium Graveolens) with supercritical carbon dioxide. J. Chem. Tech. Biotech. 81(2): 167-172.

Rajasulochana, P., R. Dhamotharan, P. Krishnamoorthy. and S. Murugesan. 2009. Antibacterial activity of the extracts of marine red and brown Algae. J. Am. Sci. 5(3): 20-25.

Sangwan, N., A. Farooqi, F. Shabih. and R. Sangwan. 2001. Regulation of essential oil production in plants. Plant Growth Regulation. 34(1): 3-21.

Sani, B. 2010. Effects of amino acids and irrigation interrupted on some characteristics in flixweld (Descurainia Sophia L.). Intl. Conf. Biol. Environ. Chem. Ipcbee. pp. 375-378.

Schwab, W. and T. Raab. 2004. Developmental changes during strawberry fruit ripening and physicochemical changes during postharvest storage. In: Production practices and quality assessment of food crops. pp. 341-369. Eds. Dris R., Jain S. M. Springer. Dordrecht.

Sharopov, F. S., H. Zhang. and W. N. Setzer. 2014. Composition of geranium (Pelargonium Graveolens) essential oil from Tajikistan. Am. J. Essent. Oil Nat. Prod. 2(2): 13-16.

Sivasankari, S., V. Venkatesalu, M. Anantharaj. and M. Chandrasekaran. 2006. Effect of seaweed extracts on the growth and biochemical constituents of Vigna sinensis. Bio-Resource Tech. 97(14): 1745-1751.

Sridhar, S. and R. Rengasamy. 2011. Effect of seaweed liquid fertilizer on growth, pigment concentration and yield of Amaranthus rosburghinus and Amaranthus tricolor under field trial. Intl. J. Current Res. 3: 131-134.

Thambiraj, J., K. Lingakumar. and S. Paulsamy. 2012. Effect of seaweed liquid fertilizer (SLF) prepared from sargassum wightii and Hypnea Musciformis on the growth and biochemical constituents of the pulse, Cyamopsis Tetragonoloba (L). J. Res. Agric. 1: 65-70.

Zodape, S., A. Gupta, S. Bhandari, U. Rawat, D. Chaudhary, K. Eswaran. and J. Chikara. 2011. Foliar application of seaweed sap as biostimulant for enhancement of yield and quality of tomato (Lycopersicon Esculentum Mill.). J. Sci. Industrial Res. 70: 215-219.