Effect of Different level of Nitrogen and Vermicompost on Quantitative and Quali-tative Traits of Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)


Msc. Graduated, Department of Agronomy, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, Iran.


BACKGROUND: Wheat produces more than 50 percent of requirements protein and calorie for human nutrition in Iran. Management of nitrogen fertilizing is important to increasing wheat production. So, among chemical fertilizer a high correlation reported between nitrogen and yield. Also to improve physical, chemical and biological properties of soil, organic fertilizer such as vermicompost can be applied.
OBJECTIVES: This research was carried out to assessment effect of different level of nitrogen fertilizer and vermicompost on crop production, concentration of protein and nitrogen in seed and straw and nitrogen harvest index of wheat.
METHODS: Current study was conducted according factorial experiment based on randomized complete blocks design with three replications along 2013-2014 agronomic years. The Main plot included nitrogen fertilizer at four level (0 or control, 50, 100 and 150 kg.ha-1) and vermicompost at four level (nonuse of vermicompost or control, 2.5, 5 and 10 t.ha-1) belonged to sub plot.
RESULT: According result of analysis of variance effect of different level of nitrogen, vermicompost and interaction effect of treatments on all studied traits was significant at 1% probability level. Evaluation mean comparison result revealed in different level of nitrogen the maximum seed yield (6484 kg.ha-1) seed nitrogen content (3.95%) seed nitrogen yield (18.42 gr.m-2) seed protein content (18.4%) Straw nitrogen content (1.51%) straw nitrogen yield (16.1 gr.m-2) and nitrogen harvest index (66.95%) was noted for 150 kg.ha-1 and minimum of measured traits belonged to control treatment. Also compare different level of vermicompost showed that the maximum and the minimum amount of studied traits belonged to 10 t.ha-1 and control, respectively. Assessment mean comparison result of interaction effect of treatments indicated the highest amount of all measured traits were noted for 150 kg.ha-1 nitrogen with 10 t.ha-1 vermicompost and lowest ones belonged to control treatment.
CONCLUSION: Finally according result of current study application 150 kg.ha-1 nitrogen fertilizer and 10 t.ha-1 vermicompost led to achieve highest amount of crop production, seed nitrogen and protein content, straw nitrogen content and nitrogen yield and nitrogen harvest index, so it can be advised to producers.




Abedi, T., A. Alemzadeh. and S. A.Kazemeini. 2010. Effect of organic and inorganic fertilizers on grain yield and protein banding pattern of wheat. Aust. J. Crop Sci. 4: 384-389.

Ahmadinejad, R., N. Najafi, N. A. Asghrzade. and S. Oustan. 2013. Effects of organic fertilizers and nitrogen on water use efficiency and wheat yield and properties (Alvand cultivar). J. Soil Water Knowledge.23(2): 94-177. (Abstract in English)

Ali, E. A. 2011. Impact of nitrogen application time on grain and protein yields as well as nitrogen use efficiency of some two-row barley cultivars in sandy soil. American-Eurasian J. Agri. Environ. Sci. 10: 425-433.

Alazmani, A. 2015. Evaluation of yield and yield components of barley varieties to nitrogen. Intl. J. Agri. Crop Sci. 8(1): 52-54.

Almodares, A., M. Jafarinia. and M. R. Hadi. 2009. The effects of nitrogen fertilizer on chemical compositions in corn and sweet Sorghum. American-Eurasian J. Agri. Environ. Sci. 6(4): 441-446.

Andhikari, N. P. and B. N. Mishra. 2002. Effect of integrated sources of nitrogen on yield of aromatic rice and their residual effect on succeeding. Extended Summaries: 2nd Intl. Agron. Cong. New Delhi. India. 26-30 November. 1: 63–64.

Amyanpoori, S., M. Ovassi. and E. Fathinejad. 2015. Effect of vermicompost and triple superphosphate on yield of corn (Zea mays L.). J. Exp. Biol. Agri. Sci. 3(5): 494-499.

Asami, D. K., Y. J. Hong, D. M. Barrett. and A. E. Mitchel. 2003. Comparison of the total phenolic and ascorbic acid content of freeze-dried and air dried Marion berry, strawberry, and corn using conventional, organic, and sustainable agricultural practices. J. Agric. Food Chem. 51: 1237-1241.

Asghari, E., K. Razmjoo. and M. Mazaheri Tehrani. 2006. Effect of nitrogen rates on yield and yield components and grain protein of grain sorghum. J. Agric. Sci. Natur. Resour. 13(1): 49-57.

Atiyeh, R. M., S. Subler, C. A. Edwards, G. bachman, J. D. Metzger. and W. Shuster. 2000. Effects of vermicompost and composts on plan growth in horticultural container media and soil. Pedo. Biologia. 44: 579-590.

Atiyeh, R. M., C. A. Edwards, S. Subler. and J. D. Metzger. 2001. Pig manure vermicompost as a component of horticultural bedding plant medium: effects on physicochemical properties and plant growth. Biores. Technol. 78: 11-20.

Austin, R. B. and H. C. Jones. 1975. The physiology of wheat. Annual Report. Plant Breeding Institute. Cambridge. England.

Ayadi, S., Ch. Karmous, Z. Hammami, Y. Trif. and S. Rezgui. 2014. Variation of durum wheat yield and nitrogen use efficiency under Mediterranean Rainfed Environment. Int. J. Agri. Crop Sci. 7(10): 693-699.

Basu, M., P. B. S. Bhadoria. and S. C. Mahapatra. 2008. Growth, nitrogen fixation, yield and kernel quality of peanut in response to lime, organic and inorganic fertilizer levels. Bioresour. Technol. 99: 4675-4683.

Behera, U. K., A. R. Sharma. and H. N. Pandey. 2007. Sustaining productivity of wheat-soybean cropping system through integrated nutrient management practices on the vertisols of central India. Plant Soil. 97: 185-199.

Bremner, J. M. and G. A. Breitenbeck. 1983. A simple method for determination of ammonium in semi micro Kjeldahl analysis of soils and plant materials using a block digester. Soil Sci. Plant Anal. 14: 905-913.

Brown, B. 2010. Nitrogen timing for boot stage triticale forage yield and phosphorus uptake. Western Nutrient Manage. Conf. 8: 62-67.

Canellas, L. P., F. L. Olivares, A. L. Okorokova-Facanha. and A. R. Facanha. 2002. Humic acids isolated from earthworm compost enhance root elongation, lateral root emergence, and plasma membrane H-ATPase activity in maize roots. Plant Physiol. 130: 1951-1957.

Chaoui, H. I., L. M. Zibilske. and T. Ohno. 2003. Effects of earthworm casts and compost on soil microbial activity and plant nutrient availability. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 35: 295-302.

Cossani, C., G. A. MarianoSlafer. and. R. Savin. 2012. Nitrogen and water use efficiencies of wheat and barley under a Mediterranean environment in Catalonia. Field Crops Res. 128(14): 109-118.

Daniel, C. and E. Triboi. 2000. Effects of temperature and nitrogen nutrition on the grain composition of winter wheat: effects on gliadin content and composition. J. Cereal Sci. 32: 45-56.

Dastmozd, Gh. R., H. R. Ebrahimi. and B. Jafari Haghighi. 2015. Combined application of vermicompost and NPK fertilizers on Wheat production in Marvdasht. Res. J. Fish. Hydrobiol. 10(10): 153-156.

Davidson, D. J. and P. M. Shevalier. 1992. Storage and remobilization of water soluble carbohydrates in stems of spring wheat. Crop Sci. 38: 186-190.

Delogu, G., L. Cattivelli, N. Pecchioni, D. De Flacis, T. Maggiore. and A. M. Stanca. 1998. Uptake and agronomic efficiency of nitrogen in winter barley and winter wheat. Eur. J. Agron. 9: 11-20.

Dupont, F. M. and S. B. Altenbach. 2003. Molecular and biochemical impacts of environmental factors on wheat grain development and protein synthesis. J. Cereal Sci. 38: 133-146.

Edwards, C. A. and N. Arancon. 2004. Vermicomposts suppress plant pest and disease attacks. Available:


Eidy-Zadeh, Kh., A. Damghani Mahdavi, F. Ebrahimpur. and H. Sabahi. 2012. Effects of amount and methodorganic fertilizers combined with thechemical fertilizer application on yield and yield components of corn. Electronic J. Crop Prod. 5(3): 35-21.

Eskandari, M. and A. R. Astarayei. 2007. The impact of various organic materials on growth features and total weight of pea plant biomass and grain. J. Iranian Crops Res.5(1): 19-27. (Abstract in English)

Farooqui, M. A., I. S. Naruka, S. S. Rathore, P. P. Singh. and R. P. S. Shaktawat. 2009. Effect of nitrogen and sulphur levels on growth and yield of garlic (Allium sativum L.). As. J. Food Ag. Ind. Special Issue. S: 18-23.

Fowler, D. B. 2003. Crop nitrogen demand and grain protein concentration of spring and winter wheat. Agron. J. 95: 260-265.

Giambalwo, D., P. G. Ruisi. and G. Di-Miceli. 2010. Nitrogen use efficiency and nitrogen fertilizer recovery of durum wheat genotypes as affected by inter specific competition. Agron. J. 102: 707-715.

Ghasrodashti, A. M., H. R. Balouchi, A. Yadavi. and M. Ghobadi. 2014. Effect of different levels of municipal solid waste compost and nitrogen on some grain elements concentration of sweet corn (Zea mays L. saccharata) and some soil properties under Marvdasht conditions. J. Agroecol. 6(1): 118-129. (Abstract in English)

Good, A. G. and P. H. Beatty. 2011. Fertilizing Nature: A tragedy of excess in the commons. PLOS Biol. 9(8): 11- 24.

Hosseini, R., S. Galeshi, A. Soltani, M. Kalateh. and M. Zahed. 2013. The effect of nitrogen rate on nitrogen use efficiency index in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars. Iranian J. Field Crops Res. 11(2): 300-306. (Abstract in English)

Jadhav, A. D., S. C. Talashilkar. and A. G. Pawar. 1997. Influence of the conjunctive use of FYM, vermicompost and urea on growth and nutrient uptake in rice. J. Maharashtra Agri. Univ. 22: 249-250.

Jayanthi, C., P. Malarvizhi, A. K. Fazullah Khan. and C. Chinnusamy. 2002. Integrated nutrient management in forage oat (Avena sativa L.). Indian J. Agron. 47: 130-133.

Johansson, E., M. L. Prieto-Linde. and J. Ö. Jönsson. 2001. Effects of wheat cultivar and nitrogen application on storage protein composition and bread making quality. Cereal Chem. 78: 19-25.

Johansson, E., M. L. Prieto-Linde. and G. Svensson. 2004. Influence of nitrogen application rate and timing on grain protein composition and gluten strength in Swedish wheat cultivars. J. Plant Nutr. Soil Sci. 167: 345-350.

Joorabi, S., N. Akbari, M. R. Chaichi. and Kh. Azizi. 2015. Effect of sowing date and nitrogen fertilizer on sorghum forage production in a summer intercropping system. J. Cercetări Agron. Moldova. 3(163): 63-72.

Lemon, J. 2007. Nitrogen management for wheat protein and yield in the esperance port zone. Dep. Agri. Food Pub. Western Aust. p. 25.

 López-Bellido, L., R. J. López-Bellido, J. E. Castill. and F. J. López- Bellido. 2001. Effects of long-term tillage, crop rotation and nitrogen fertilization on bread-making quality of hard red spring wheat. Field Crops Res. 72: 197-210.

Maheswarappa, H. P., H. V. Nanjappa. and M. R. Hegde. 1999. Influence of organic manures on yield of arrowroot, soil physico-chemical and biological properties when grown as intercrop in coconut garden. Ann. Agri. Res. 20: 318-323.

Manivannan, S., M. Balamurugan, K. Parthasarathi, G. Gunasekaran. and L. S. Ranganathan. 2009. Effect of vermicompost on soil fertility and crop productivity-beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). J. Environ. Biol. 30(2): 275-281.

Mengi, L., N. C. Sarkar, H. Verma. and L. T. Longkumer. 2016. Influence of different organic sources of nutrient on the productivity of upland Rice (Oryza sativa L.). Intl. J. Bioreso. Stress Manage. 7(3): 450-454.

Modhej, A., A. Naderi, Y. Emam, A. Ayneband. and Gh. Normohammadi. 2009. Effect of different nitrogen levels on grain yield, grain protein content and agronomic nitrogen use efficiency in wheat genotypes under optimum and post-anthesis heat stress conditions. Seed Plant Prod. 25(4): 353-371. (Abstract in English)

Montemurro, F., M. Maiorana, D. Ferri. and G. Convertini. 2006. Nitrogen indicators, uptake and utilization efficiency in a maize and barley rotation cropped at different levels and sources of N fertilization. Field Crop Res. 99: 114-124.

Moosavi, S. Gh., M. J. Seghatoleslami. and R. Arefi. 2013. Effect of N fertilization and plant density on yield and yield components of grain sorghum under climatic conditions of Sistan, Iran. J. Sci. Agri. 3 (1): 1-8. PSCI Publ.

Naseri, R., A. Mirzaei, R. Soleimani. and E. Nazarbeygi. 2010. Response of bread wheat to nitrogen application in calcareous soils of western Iran. American-Eurasian J. Agric. Environ. Sci. 9(1): 79-85.

Nasseri, A., H. A. Fallahi, A. Siadat. and K. Eslami-Gumush Tappeh. 2009. Protein and N-use efficiency of rainfed wheat responses to supplemental irrigation and nitrogen fertilization. J. Arch. Agron. Soil Sci. 55(3): 315-325.

Nagavallemma, K. P., S. P. Wani, V. V. Stephane Lacroix, Padmaja, C. Vineela, M. Babu Rao. and K. L. Sahrawat. 2004. Vermicomposting: Recycling wastes into valuable organic fertilizer. Global Theme on Agro ecosystems. Report No. 8. Patancheru 502-324. Andhra Pradesh. India. Intl. Crops Res. Institute Semi-Arid Tropics. 20 pp.

Namazi, E., Sh. Lack. and E. Fatahi Nejad. 2015. Effect of vermicompost and chemical nitrogen fertilizer application on the various functioning of maize seeds. J. Exp. Biol. Agri. Sci. 3(3): 261-268.

Palta, J. A., N. C. Turner. and I. R. Filery. 1994. Remobilization of carbon and N in wheat as influenced by post-anthesis water deficits. J. Crop Sci. 34: 118-124.

Singh, S. 2000. Effect of Fe, Zn on growth of canola. Environ. Sci. 34(1-2): 57-63.

Singh, J. and J. H. Skerritt. 2001. Chromosomal control of albumins and globulins in wheat grain assessed using different fractionation procedures. J. Cereal Sci. 33: 163-181.  

Shanggan, Z. P., A. Shao. and J. Dychmans. 2000. Nitrogen nutrition and water stress effects on leaf photosynthetic gas exchange and water use efficiency in winter wheat. Environ. Exp. Bot. 44: 141-149.

Sofizadeh, S., E. Zand, H. Rahimian Mashhadi. and R. Daihim Fard. 2006. Comparison of seed yield, nitrogen use efficiency and protein percentage of some old and new wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.). Iranian J. Agri. Sci. 37-1(2): 13-20. (Abstract in English)

Srivastava, A. K., S. Singh. and R. A. Marathe. 2002. Organic Citrus: Soil Fertility and Plant Nutrition. J. Sust. Agri. 19: 5-29.

Tea, I., T. Genter, N. Naulet, V. Boyer, M. Lummerzheim. and D. Kleiber. 2004. Effect of foliar sulfur and nitrogen fertilization on wheat storage protein composition and dough mixing properties. Cereal Chem. 81: 759-766.

Ting-Hui, D., C. Xin, G. Sheng-Lil, H. Ming-De. and L. K. Heng. 2006. Effect of nitrogen management on yield and water use efficiency of rain-fed wheat and maize in northwest. Pedosphere. 16: 495-504.

Wang, D., Q. Shi, X. Wang, M. Wei, J. Hu, J. Liu. and F. Yang. 2010. Influence of cow manure vermicompost on the growth, metabolite contents, and antioxidant activities of Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis). Biol. Fertil. Soils. 46: 689-696.

Zaremanesh, H., B. Nasiri. and A. Amiri. 2017. The effect of vermicompost biological fertilizer on corn yield. J. Mater. Environ. Sci. 8(1): 154-159.

Zorb, C., C. Grover, D. Steinfurth. and K. H. Muhling. 2010. Quantitative proteome analysis of wheat gluten as influenced by N and S nutrition. Plant Soil. 327(1-2): 225-234.