Response of Some Bread and Durum Wheat Genotypes to Different Levels of Nitrogen in South West of Iran


1 Department of Agronomy, Khuzestan Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, Iran.

2 Department of Agronomy, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, Iran.

3 Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Shoushtar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shoushtar, Iran.


In order to identify the effects of different levels of nitrogen fertilizer on seed yield and seed growth indices of some bread and durum wheat genotypes, a field experiment was conducted in 2013-2014 in Khuzestan Agricultural and Natural Resource Research Center. The experiment was designed as a split plot with three replications. Nitrogen application rates (50, 100 and 150 kg N.ha-1) were assigned in the main plots and the sub plots consisted of six wheat genotypes (Bread; Verinak, Star, Chamran and Durum; Karkheh, D-84-5, D-83-8). Results indicated that seed yield, seed protein percentage, seed effective filling rate, remobilization of dry matter and the current photosynthesis, 1000 seed weight and seed effective filling period between genotypes were significant. Maximum and minimum seed filling rate was related to Karkheh genotype in 150 kg N.ha-1, and Verinak in treatment of using 50 kg N.ha-1. The effect of nitrogen levels on seed effective filling period was not significant. The maximum duration of seed filling was devoted to Verinak genotype and the minimum one was for Karkheh genotype. Chamran genotype, by using 150 kg N.ha-1, had maximum seed yield while Verinak genotype, using 50 kg N.ha-1 had minimum seed yield. Maximum 1000 seed weight was devoted to Karkheh genotype in treatment of using 150 kg N.ha-1, also the minimum 1000 seed weight was that of Star genotype in treatment of using 100 kg N.ha-1. The maximum seed protein percentage was observed at D-84-5 line, in 150 kg N.ha-1, and minimum amount of protein was in Chamran and Karkheh in 50 kg N.ha-1. A positive and significant correlation observed between seed yield and seed weight, the current photosynthesis rate and remobilization rate. In general, according to Khuzestan climate conditions, planting Chamran genotypes by using 150 kg N.ha-1, can led to an appropriate
yield and it is highly suggested.


Abedi, T., A. Alemzadeh. and S. Abdolreza Kazemeini. 2011. Wheat yield and grain protein response to nitrogen amount and timing. Aust. J. Crop Sci. 5(3): 330-336.  

Ayadi, S., Ch. Karmous, Z. Hammami, Y. Trif. and S. Rezgui. 2014. Variation of durum wheat yield and nitrogen use efficiency under Mediterranean Rainfed Environment. Int. J. Agri. Crop Sci. 7(10): 693-699.

Bahrani, A., H. Heidari Sharif Abad, Z. Tahmasebi Sarvestani, Gh. Moafpourian. and A. Ayneh Band. 2011. Remobilization of dry matter in wheat: effects of nitrogen application and post-anthesis water deficit during grain filling. New Zealand J. Crop Horti. Sci. 39(4): 279-293.

DOI: 10.1080/01140671.2011.599397.

Blum, A. 1998. Improving wheat grain filling under stress by stem reserve mobilization. Euphytica J. 100: 77–83.

Braun, H. J., G. Atlin. and T. Payne. 2010. Multi-location testing as a unit to identify plant response to global climate change. In: Reynolds MP, ed. Climate change and crop production. Surrey, UK: CABI Climate Change Series. pp: 115–138.

David, C. 1997. Nitrogen management organic farming: nutrient requirement and fertilization, Gent, September 7-13, 1997. Gent University and International Scientific of Fertilizers. pp: 647-660.

Distelfeld, A, R. Avni. and A. Fischer. 2014. Senescence, nutrient remobilization, and yield in wheat and barley. J. Exp. Bot. 65(14): 3783–3798.

Ehdaie, B., B. G. A. Alloush, M. A. Madore. and J. G. Waines. 2006. Genotypic variation for stem reserves and mobilization in wheat: I. Post-anthesis changes in internodes dry matter. Crop Sci. J. 46(2): 735-746.

Ehdaie, B. and D. G. Waines. 2001. Sowing date and nitrogen rate effects on dry matter and nitrogen partitioning in bread and durum wheat. Field Crops Res. J. 73(1): 7-61.

Ercoli, L., L. Lulli, M. Mariotti, A. Masoni. and I. Arduini. 2008. Post-anthesis dry matter and nitrogen dynamics in durum wheat as affected by nitrogen supply and soil water availability. Eur. J. Agron. 28: 138-147.

Ellis, R. H. and C. Pieta-Fllho. 1992. The development of seed quality in spring and winter cultivars of barley and wheat. Seed Sci. Res. J. 2: 19-25.

Fang, Y., X. Bing-Cheng, T. Neil. and L. Feng-Min. 2010. Grain yield, dry matter accumulation and remobilization and root respiration in winter wheat as affected by seeding rate and root pruning. Eur. J. Agron. 33: 257-266.

Flood, R. G., P. J. Martin. and W. K. Gardener. 1995. Dry matter accumulation and partitioning and its relationships to seed yield in wheat. Aust. J. Exp. Agric. 35: 495-502.

Fredrick, J. R. and J. J. Camperato. 1994. Leaf net CO2 exchange rate and associated leaf traits of winter wheat grown with various spring nitrogen fertilization rates. Crop Sci. J. 34: 432-439.

Gardner, F. P., B. Pearce. and R. L. Mitchell. 2003. Physiology of Crop Plants. Jodhpur Scientific. 328 p.

Golabadi, M., P. Golkar. and B. Bahari. 2015. Remobilization assay of dry matter from different shoot organs under drought stress in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Agron. Res.J. 13(5): 1202–1214.


Khalilzadeh, Gh., A. R. Eivazi, J. Mozaffari. and Y. Arshad .2013. Genetic variation for the efficiency of nitrogen uptake and use in Bread wheat cultivars of Iran and Azerbaijan. Int. J. Farming and Allied Sci. 2(21): 900-908.

Kumar, A., B. Singh. and J. Sing. 2001. Response of macanip heat (T. durum) nitrogen. Phosphorus and sodic water on loamy-sand of southwest hiragana. Indian J. 46(1): 118-121.

Mainard, S. D. and M. H. Jeuffrory. 2001. Partitioning of dry matter and nitrogen to the spike throughout the spike growth period in wheat crops subjected to nitrogen deficiency. Field Crop Res. J. 70: 153-165.

Mandic, V., V. Krnjaja1, Z. Tomic, Z. Bijelic, A. Simic, D. Ruzic Muslic. and M. Gogic. 2015. Nitrogen fertilizer influence on wheat yield and use efficiency under different environmental conditions. Chilean J. Agri. Res. 75(1): 92-97.

Modhej, A. and M. Mojadam. 2006. Effect of harvesting levels and nitrogen fertilization on source limitation and yield in dual-purpose (Forage and seed) Barley (Hordeum vulgar L.). J. Agric. Sci. 13: 143-151.

Modhej, A., A. Naderi, Y. Emam, A. Aynehband. and Gh. Normohamadi. 2008. Effects of post-anthesis heat stress and nitrogen levels on grain yield in wheat genotypes. Int. J. Plant Prod. 2(3): 257-268.

Modhej, A. and Sh. Lack. 2011. Effects of nitrogen rates on grain yield and grain growth of spring wheat genotypes under post-anthesis heat stress conditions. J. Adv. Environ. Biol. 5(9): 2570-2578.

Mohammadi ,T., R. Nazaryan. and S. Kobraee. 2015. The response of chlorophyll and protein concentration in winter wheat to different levels of irrigation and nitrogen application. Int. J. Biol. Pharmacy and Allied Sci. 4(6): 3826-3833.

Naseri, R., A. Mirzaei, R. Soleimani. and E. Nazarbeygi. 2010. Response of bread wheat to nitrogen application in calcareous soils of western Iran. American-Eurasian J. Agric. Environ. Sci. 9(1): 79-85.

Nasseri, A., H. A. Fallahi, A. Siadat. and K. Eslami-Gumush Tappeh. 2009. Protein and N-use efficiency of rainfed wheat responses to supplemental irrigation and nitrogen fertilization. J. Arch. Agron. Soil Sci. 55(3): 315-325.

Peltonen, P. and J. Peltonen. 1995. Floret set and abortion in eat and wheat under high and low nitrogen. Eur. J. Agron. 4: 253-262.

Royo, C., J. Voltas. and I. Romagosa. 1999. Remobilization of pre-anthesis assimilates to seed for seed and dual-purpose (Forage and seed) triticale crop. Agron. J. 91: 312-316.

Setter, T. L., W. K. Anderson, S. Asseng. and S. Barclay. 1998. Review of the impact of high shoot carbohydrate concentration on maintenance of high yields in cereals exposed to environmental stress during grain filling. CAB Abstract. 51, 23.

Simons, R. G. 1982. Tiller and ear production of winter wheat. Field crops Abs. J. 35: 875-870.

Sosulski, F. W. and G. I. Imafidon. 1990. Amino acid composition and nitrogen-to-protein conversion factors for animal and plant foods. J. Agric. Food. Chem. 38: 1351-1356.

Subedi, K. D., B. L. Ma. and A. G. Xue. 2007. Planting date and nitrogen effects on seed and protein response to nitrogen fertilizer. Aust. J. Exp. Agric. Animal Husbandry. 16(80): 407-410.

Tahmasebi Sarvestani, Z., C. F. Jenner. and G. MaC Donald. 2003. Dry matter and nitrogen remobilization of two wheat genotypes under post-anthesis water stress conditions. J. Agric. Sci. Tech. 5: 21-28.

Wang, Z., J. Fu, M. He, Q. Tian. and H. Cao. 1997. Effects of source: sink manipulation on net photosynthetic rate and photosynthetic partitioning during grain filling in winter wheat. Biologia Plantarum. J. 39(3): 379-385.

Yang, J., J, Zhang, Z, Huang, Q, Zhu. and L. Wang. 2000. Remobilization of carbon reserves is improved by controlled soil-drying during grain filling of wheat. Crop Sci. J. 40(2): 1645-1655.

Yang, J., Z. Jianhuo, W. Zhiqing, Z. Qingsen. and W. Wei. 2001. Remobilization of carbon reserves in response to water deficit during seed filling of rice. Field Crops Res. J. 71: 47-55.